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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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C

Canada

Enabling Clause notifications

GSP schemes GATT 63

special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79

 

Canada — Aircraft Credits and Guarantees (Panel), WT/DS139/R and Corr.1, DSR 2002:III

developing countries (SCM 27), Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I item (k)) and SCM 526

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a)), size of domestic market, relevance SCM 147

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general) SCM 125

OECDD Arrangement, compliance with, relevance SCM 79

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency, knowledge or expectation, sufficiency SCM 138

GATT Subsidies Code, limited nature of provisions SCM 702

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), obligation to provide information on request (DXU 13.1) and DSU 117

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)), as contextual guidance SCM 615

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)), burden of proof SCM 661

“safe haven” (international undertaking (item (k), second paragraph))

legislation as such (mandatory/discretionary distinction) SCM 663

matching derogation, permissibility SCM 6589

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), “from any individual or body”, good faith obligation (DSU 3.10) and DSU 117

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), mandatory/ discretionary legislation, distinguishability, affirmative defence (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) and SCM 663

loan guarantees, as benefit (SCM 14(c)) SCM 93, 41415

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 23.1/SCM SCM 700, DSU 1296

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 3.1(a) SCM 73

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 14(c) SCM 93

SCM Agreement, GATT Subsidies Code and SCM 702

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

“benefit”, provision of services not available in the market SCM 80

burden of proof, rebuttal of prima facie case SCM 91

loan guarantees (SCM 14(c)) SCM 93, 41415

OECD Arrangement, relevance of compliance with SCM 79

“recipient of a benefit” SCM 65

subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/ discretionary distinction) SCM 715, 663

“as applied” SCM 71, 1723

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 293 n. 466

burden of proof SCM 745

order of analysis SCM 72

SCM 3.1(a) as “substantive context” SCM 73

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit), fiscal advantages, relevance SCM 78

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1) SCM 700, DSU 1297

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), “without delay”, obligation of panel to specify time-period SCM 214

 

Canada — Aircraft Credits and Guarantees (Article 22.6 — Canada), DS222/RB, DSR 2003:III

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

burden of proof, SCM 4.11 arbitrations DSU 586

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7), rejection of proposed level of suspension and DSU 1259

timing in relation to Article 21.5 arbitration DSU 1176

working procedures DSU 1212

late submission of evidence DSU 729

opportunity to comment, need for DSU 729

new argumentation, cut-off date DSU 730

burden of proof (general rules)

Article 22.6 arbitrations DSU 586

Article 22.6 arbitrations under SCM 4.11 DSU 586

cooperation of parties and DSU 586

onus probandi actori incumbit DSU 586

business confidential information (DSU 18.2) (BCI), ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1) and DSU 9907

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10)

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11), burden of proof DSU 586

inducement of compliance as objective DSU 1179

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

late submission of evidence DSU 729

new argumentation, cut-off date DSU 730

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 342 n. 552

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1), BCI (DSU 18.2) and DSU 907

nature and purpose of countermeasures DSU 1179

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1192

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 22.6/SCM 4.10 and 4.11 DSU 586

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), reasoned estimates, need for DSU 1228

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2), obligations under LIC DSU 1192, 1270

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1179

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), agreement to DSU 1192, 1270

termination of treaty for breach (VCLT 60), rights created prior to, effect on (VCLT 70) DSU 1176, 1673

 

Canada — Aircraft dispute (WT/DS70)

relationships within and between agreements, AIR 6/SCM AIR 23

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreements, establishment of panels DSU 1170

SCM and AIR 23

 

Canada — Aircraft (AB), WT/DS70/AB/R, DSR 1999:IV

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13) DSU 561

burden of proof and DSU 55960

discretionary nature DSU 561

as general principle of international tribunal practice DSU 561

burden of proof (general rules)

adverse inferences (DSU 13) and DSU 55960

prima facie case requirement

business confidential information (BCI), additional procedures, AB DSU 920

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU14/DSU17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3), obligation to respect/ensure respect for DSU 914, 919

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/WP 3), adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13) and DSU 561

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, circumstantial evidence DSU 633

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent … upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 3.1(b)), de facto contingency SCM 165

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a))

“anticipated” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 136

“but for” test SCM 134

case-by-case approach SCM 143

“grant or maintain” (SCM 3.1 footnote 4) SCM 136

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency SCM 144

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 133, 144

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general), “contingent” SCM 126

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), obligation to provide information on request (DXU 13.1) and DSU 116

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

“from any individual or body”

good faith obligation (DSU 3.10) and DSU 116

parties DSU 747

prompt and full response requirement DSU 7612

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries SCM 136

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) SCM 135

judicial economy, adverse inferences and DSU 561

loan guarantees, as benefit (SCM 14(c)) SCM 415

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) SCM 59

“confer” (SCM 1.1(b)) SCM 59

“contingent” (SCM 3.1) SCM 135, 165

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 133, 136

relationships within and between agreements

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 14 SCM 59, 87, 92

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM Annex IV SCM 96

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), new arguments DSU 855

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, circumstantial evidence DSU 633

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

“benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 59, 87, 92

loan guarantees (SCM 14(c)) SCM 415

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

“benefit”

cost to government, relevance SCM 59

market test SCM 61

SCM 14 and SCM 59, 87, 92

SCM Annex IV and SCM 96

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), single panel proceedings (DSU 9.1) DSU 515

 

Canada — Aircraft (Panel), WT/DS70/R, DSR 1999:IV

accelerated/expedited procedures, consultations (SCM 4.1–4), statement of evidence (SCM 4.2) and SCM 18890, 191

business confidential information (BCI), additional procedures, panel (DSU 12.1) DSU 687, 919

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

accelerated/expedited procedures (SCM 4.3), statement of evidence (SCM 4.2) and SCM 18890, 191

object and purpose, clarification and development of the facts of the situation/mutually agreed solution (SCM 4.3) SCM 203

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2), request for establishment of panel (SCM 4.4) distinguished SCM 191

time–limits

new evidence SCM 188

new evidence and allegations DSU 624

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties SCM 188, 190

timing of submission of evidence (DS 12) and DSU 624

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 377

evidence (panel) (DSU 12)

time–limits for submission

absence of provision (Working Procedures (Appendix 3)) SCM 18890, 191

accelerated procedures (SCM 4.3) and SCM 18890, 191

affirmative defence (SCM 3.1) DSU 731

panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence DSU 6238, 624

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a))

case-by-case approach SCM 143

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 133, 143

“contingent in law …” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 129

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general), “export performance” SCM 149

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency, knowledge or expectation, sufficiency SCM 133, 137, 143, 146

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

identification of industry, need for DSU 233

identity with specific measure the subject of consultations, relevance SCM 203

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I), export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)), “benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 94

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, caution in use of DSU 1569

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 624

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 348

summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 377

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

mandatory/discretionary legislation, distinguishability SCM 81, DSU 293

assessment of mandatory nature DSU 293

notification obligations (SCM 25), notification, effect (SCM 25.7) SCM 517

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) SCM 59

preliminary rulings on, timing of submission of evidence DSU 624

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects)

absence of requirement/established practice DSU 3489

procedures, need for DSU 3489

timing DSU 348

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 11/SCM 4 SCM 18890, 18891

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM 14 SCM 92

SCM 1.1(b)/SCM Annex I item (k) SCM 94

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 377

request for establishment of panel, requirements (SCM 4.4)

accelerated/expedited procedures (ABWP 31), relevance SCM 191

failure to reach mutually agreed solution through consultations SCM 203

statement of available evidence, relevance SCM 191

SCM Agreement, object and purpose (SCM 1), multilateral disciplines on subsidies distorting international trade SCM 2

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “make such other findings” DSU 601

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14), “benefit” (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 92

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

“benefit”

cost to government, relevance SCM 59

market test SCM 60

burden of proof, rebuttal of prima facie case SCM 90

SCM 14 and SCM 92

SCM Illustrative List, Item (k) and SCM 94

subsidy programmes as such, right to challenge (mandatory/ discretionary distinction), “as applied” SCM 81

Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM), dispute settlement/ enforcement of specific obligations, exclusion (TRMS A (i)) TPRM 5

 

Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (AB), WT/DS70/AB/RW, DSR 2000:IX

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel, determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations DSU 1100

“measures taken to comply”

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings and DSU 1141

measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1110, 1148 n. 1801

measure taken “to comply” /measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1110

new measures DSU 1143

 

Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (Panel), WT/DS70/R, DSR 2000:IX

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II), “contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general), “export performance” SCM 1489

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k))

burden of proof SCM 654

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance SCM 650

“export credit practice” SCM 6445

international undertaking on official export credits (item (k), second paragraph) (“safe haven”)

Canadian Policy Guideline SCM 652

“in conformity” SCM 6502

matching derogation, permissibility SCM 657

OECD Arrangement SCM 639, 642, 6502

qualification for inclusion under, requirements SCM 637

“safe haven” (international undertaking (item (k), second paragraph)), “interest rates provisions” SCM 649

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “export credit practice” (SCM Illustrative List item (k)) SCM 644

 

Canada — Autos (AB), WT/DS139/AB/R, WT/DS142/AB/R, DSR 2000:VI and DSR 2000:VII

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent … upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 3.1(b)), de facto contingency SCM 165, 1667

“contingent in law …” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 1278, 130

GATt, object and purpose (GATT I:1), non-discrimination GATT 24, 26

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to omissions DSU 1615

object and purpose, GATT I:1 GATT 50

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SPS 3.1(a)/SPS 3.1(b) SCM 1667

judicial economy

explicit reference to, relevance DSU 649

“positive solution to dispute” requirement (DSU 3.7)/false judicial economy and DSU 649

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1)

“affecting” GATS 1112

wholesale trade service suppliers in their capacity as service suppliers, need to examine GATS 12

MFN treatment (GATS II), determination of violoation, elements, analysis of evidence GATS 33

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, affiliation with designated local manufacturer/importer requirement and GATT 478

“advantage”, “any advantage … granted … to any product” GATT 34

all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 115

de facto discrimination GATT 26

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“contingent” (SCM 3.1) SCM 165

“contingent upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 3.1(b)) SCM 167

relationships within and between agreements

GATS I:1/GATS II/XVII GATS 11, 32, 11, 32

GATS/GATT GATT 429

GATT I/GATT XXIV GATT 115

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 866

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

exemption from or remission of internal taxes upon exportation (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii) footnote 1) SCM 36

foregoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)), “otherwise due” /basis of comparison (“but for” test) SCM 356

 

Canada — Autos (Panel), WT/DS139/R, WT/DS142/R, DSR 2000:VI and DSR 2000:VII

customs unions (GATT XXIV:5(a))

as defence or exception (“shall not prevent”), trade-restrictiveness test GATT 1013

definition (GATT XXIV:8(a)), internal trade arrangements (“substantially all trade”) (GATT XXIV:8(a)(i)) GATT 1032

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

new argumentation, cut-off date DSU 329

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties DSU 329

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 329

economic integration (GATS V)

RTAs, notification, national treatment (GATS V:1(b))/MFN treatment (GATS II), applicability GATS 52

“substantially all discrimination” (GATS V:1(b)) GATS 52

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent … upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 3.1(b)), de facto contingency SCM 166

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a)), de facto contingency SCM 166

GATT 1994, object and purpose (GATT I:1), non-discrimination GATT 50

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), government action, limitation to DSU 250

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose GATT 50

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SPS 3.1(a)/SPS 3.1(b) SCM 166

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TRIMs 1213, SCM 180

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 329

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), relevant factors, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 340

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1), “affecting” GATS 11

MFN treatment (GATS II)

“like service and service supplier” (GATS II:1), wholesale transactions GATS 37

vertical integration/exclusive distribution arrangements, effect GATS 35

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”

conditional advantage and “advantage accorded unconditionally” distinguished GATT 49

“unconditionally”, ordinary meaning GATT 49

“all other contracting parties”, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5) and GATT 50, 99, 115

frontier traffic, customs unions and free trade areas (GATT XXIV) and GATT 99

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting” GATT 360

actual impact, relevance GATT 360

ordinary meaning GATT 360

“laws, regulations or requirements”

non-mandatory measures GATT 351, 355

private action and GATT 355, DSU 250

ratio requirement (net sales value of locally-produced product/locally sold product), ratio requirement (net sales value of locally-produced product/locally sold product) GATT 364

TRIMs and GATT 424, TRIMs 1214

national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII), foreign character of services (SG XVII footnote 10), relevance GATS 133

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“affecting” (GATT III:4) GATT 360

“requirements” (GATT III:4) DSU 250

“unconditionally” (GATT I:1) GATT 49

relationships within and between agreements

GATS XVII/GATT III:4/SCM 3.1(a) SCM 180

GATS XVII/SCM 3.1(a) SCM 180

GATT I/GATT XXIV GATT 115

GATT III:4/SCM 3.1(a) SCM 180

GATT III:4/TRIMs 2 GATT 424

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 329

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for act or omission of, private parties GATT 355, DSU 250

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2), subsidy “contingent upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 2.3/SCM 3.1) SCM 119

TRIMs Agreement, as integral part of WTO Agreement TRIMs 1214

 

Canada — Autos (Article 21.3), WT/DS139/12, WT/DS142/12, DSR 2000:X, “reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations), coordination with other changes, relevance DSU 1080

 

Canada — Continued Suspension (Panel), WT/DS321/R

burden of proof (general rules), good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) GATT 570 n. 805

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), suspension of concessions (DSU 22) and WTO 289

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), burden of proof/presumption of GATT 570 n. 805

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

conformity of measure with WTO obligation, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) WTO 289

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) WTO 289

 

Canada — Dairy dispute (WT/DS103, WT/DS113)

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreements, compliance with deadlines DSU 1173

“sequencing” (interrelationship between Article 21.5 and Article 22.6 arbitration, ad hoc procedural agreements), simultaneous recourse to Article 21.5 and Article 22 DSU 1161

 

Canada — Dairy (AB), WT/DS103/AB/R and Corr.1, WT/DS113/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 1999:V and DSR 1999:VI

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

“direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a))

“governments or their agencies” AG 85

payment-in-kind as direct subsidy AG 84

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)) AG 11

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AG 85, 87

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase DSU 1613

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AG 9.1(a)/SCM 1.1 AG 84

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, AG 9.1(a)/AG 9.1(c) AG 8790

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

“circumstances of its conclusion”, unilateral classification practice DSU 1649 n. 2574

“recourse may be had” DSU 1630

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“payments” AG 8990

“payments” (AG 9.1(c)) AG 8990

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

“budgetary outlays” (AG 1(c)), “revenue foregone” AG 10

“financed”, “whether or not a charge on the public account” AG 87

“payments”

payment-in-kind as AG 8790

transfer of economic resources, need for AG 87

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

“subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications in the schedule” (GATT II:1(b))

description distinguished GATT 140

price ceiling not included in Schedule GATT 141

“subject to” GATT 140

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), transfer of economic resources from grantor to recipient for less than full consideration AG 84

 

Canada — Dairy (Panel), WT/DS103/R, WT/DS113/R, DSR 1999:V and DSR 1999:VI

“agricultural products” (AG 2/Annex 1), applicability AG 21

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

object and purpose (preamble)

fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system AG 2

on-going reform AG 2

export subsidy commitments (AG 9), “direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a)), payment-in-kind as direct subsidy AG 84

import licensing procedures, non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3), GATT II(1)(b) and LIC 32

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose LIC 32

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II:1(b)/LIC 3 GATT 175, LIC 32

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

“subject to the terms, conditions or qualifications in the schedule” (GATT II:1(b))

description distinguished GATT 140

“subject to” GATT 140

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), “agent” / “organ” of State DSU 1676

 

Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US) (AB), WT/DS103/AB/RW, WT/DS113/AB/RW, DSR 2001:XIII

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10), export subsidy, prohibited (SCM 1.1 and 3.1) and SCM 181

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

AG 9.1(c)/SCM Illustrative List items (c), (d) and (k) SCM 601

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, AG 9.1(a) and (b)/AG 9.1(c) AG 92

order of analysis, AD 13/SCM 3, 5 and 6/GATT XVI SCM 182

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance AG 92

domestic price fixed by government AG 93

factual and regulatory setting, relevance AG 923

industry-wide production costs AG 96

market rate, relevance, world market price AG 945

objective standard, need for AG 945

“by virtue of” AG 99, 101, 106

link, need for AG 1007

“financed” AG 99

“whether or not a charge on the public account” AG 99

“government action” AG 98

government mandate or direction, relevance, AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished SCM 601

payments by private parties as AG 102

relationships within and between agreements

AG 9.1 and 10.1/SCM 1.1 and SCM 3.1 SCM 1812, 701

AG 9.1(c)/9.2 AG 92

AG 9.1(c)/SCM Illustrative List items (c), (d) and (k) SCM 601

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 869

 

Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US) (Panel), WT/DS103/RW, WT/DS113/RW, DSR 2001:XIII

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

object and purpose (preamble)

AG 9.1(c) and AG 3

fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system AG 3

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, preamble as evidence of AG 3

order of analysis, AD 13/SCM 3, 5 and 6/GATT XVI SCM 182 n. 283

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c)), market intervention AG 3

“by virtue of” AG 100

“but for” test AG 100

preliminary rulings on, third party rights DSU 505

relationships within and between agreements

GATT II:1(b)/LIC 3 LIC 32

SCM 3.1/SCM 4.7 SCM 153

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), third party rights (DSU 10), right to receive submissions to first meeting of the panel, limitation to (DSU 10.3) DSU 5045, 5056

third party rights (Article 21.5 proceedings) DSU 505

preliminary ruling on DSU 505

“withdrawal of subsidy without delay” (SCM 4.7), agricultural subsidies, applicability to SCM 153

 

Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US II) (AB), WT/DS103/AB/RW2, WT/DS113/AB/RW2, DSR 2003:I

burden of proof, reversal DSU 544

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10), burden of proof (AG 10.3), reversal AG 126

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “financing” (AG 9.1(c)) AG 104

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c)), industry-wide production costs AG 97

“by virtue of” AG 99, 1047

“financed” AG 1047

“whether or not a charge on the public account” AG 104

“payments”, cross-subsidization as/as cross-subsidization AG 106

 

Canada — FIRA (GATT Panel), BISD 30S/140

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), applicability, measures imposed at the time or point of importation (“internal measures”) (Ad Article), QRs (GATT XI) distinguished GATT 408

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “requirements”, private action and GATT 46 n. 45, 355

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

GATT III, and GATT 408

as importation measure GATT 408

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for act or omission of, private parties DSU 250

 

Canada — Patent Term (AB), WT/DS170/AB/R, DSR 2000:X and DSR 2000:XI

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1462

intellectual property rights, acquisition and maintenance including inter partes procedures

relationship between TRIPS 33 and TRIPS 62.2 TRIPS 276

unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2), term of protection (TRIPS 33) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 276

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II)

existing subject matter, applicability to (TRIPS 70)

“acts which occurred before date” (TRIPS 70.1) and “existing at the date” (TRIPS 70.2) distinguished TRIPS 307, 311, DSU 1524

“acts” (TRIPS 70.1) TRIPS 30810, DSU 1524

“subject matter” (TRIPS 70.2) TRIPS 311

term of protection (TRIPS 33) and TRIPS 317

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise TRIPS 276, 308

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

in absence of different intention DSU 1524

continuing measures DSU 1524, 1527

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“acts” (TRIPS 70.1) TRIPS 30810, DSU 1524

“filing date” (TRIPS 33) TRIPS 211

“subject-matter” (TRIPS 70.2) TRIPS 311

terms used in, TRIPS 33 TRIPS 211

patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

patentable subject matter (TRIPS 27), as context for interpretation of TRIPS 70 (protection of existing subject matter) TRIPS 311

term of protection (TRIPS 33)

“available” TRIPS 212

“effectiveness”, relevance TRIPS 213

“existing subject matter” (TRIPS 70.2) and TRIPS 317

freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and, “filing date” TRIPS 211

unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 276

relationships within and between agreements

TRIPS 33/TRIPS 70.2 TRIPS 317

TRIPS 70.1/70.2 TRIPS 307

retroactivity (TRIPS 70.1) TRIPS 307, DSU 1524

TRIPS Agreement

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose (TRIPS 7) TRIPS 310

transitional arrangements (TRIPS 65), procedural nature TRIPS 287

 

Canada — Patent Term (Panel), WT/DS170/R, DSR 2000:X and DSR 2000:XI

consultations (DSU 4), acceleration (DSU 4.9), panel’s workload and DSU 174

fair and equitable procedures (TRIPS 42)

requirement (TRIPS 41.2) TRIPS 218

“right holders” TRIPS 218

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II), acquisition and maintenance (TRIPS 62), unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2), term of protection (TRIPS 33) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 8

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, “any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3) (a)) DSU 1576

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TRIPS 215

patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

patentable subject matter (TRIPS 27)

“discrimination” (TRIPS 27.1), “fields of technology” TRIPS 180

policy considerations underlying TRIPS 185

term of protection (TRIPS 33)

freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and TRIPS 8

“filing date” TRIPS 211

unwarranted curtailment, prohibition (TRIPS 62.2) as distinct and cumulative provision TRIPS 8

TRIPS Agreement

obligations (TRIPS 1), implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1), freedom to choose method TRIPS 8

protection of existing subject matter (TRIPS 70), freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1) and TRIPS 8

 

Canada — Patent Term (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS170/10

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1058

legislative process, government control of DSU 1084

 

Canada — Periodicals (AB), WT/DS31/AB/R, DSR 1997:I

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “may uphold, modify or reverse” panel findings (DSU 17.13), unappealed findings WTO 281, DSU 822, 892

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2), as dynamic relationship (including possibility of latent demand) GATT 296

GATS Agreement, GATT 1994 overlap GATT 427, GATS 27, 278

GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) (GATT acquis), panel reports (unappealed findings) WTO 281, DSU 822, 892

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose GATT 389

legal status of panel reports, unappealed findings WTO 281, DSU 822, 892

“like product” (GATT I), “like product” analysis, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 41

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

determination of “likeness”

as legal issue DSU 841, 859

as a relative concept (“accordion”)/case-by-case approach GATT 242, 248, DSU 841, 859

narrow interpretation GATT 242

relevant factors

consumer preferences GATT 242, 248

end-uses GATT 242, 248

physical properties GATT 242, 248

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1)

“so as to afford protection”

equality of competitive conditions GATT 203

protection of competitive relationship GATT 221

national treatment, payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as exception (GATT III:8(b))

expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to GATT 389

object and purpose GATT 389

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

determination of violation, elements (GATT III:2, second sentence), “not similarly taxed” (Ad Article III) GATT 268, 309

“directly or indirectly” (GATT III:2, first sentence) GATT 277

first and second sentences distinguished GATT 2313, DSU 416 n. 698

“in excess of those applied” (GATT III:2, first sentence)

“like product” and “in excess of” GATT 238

methodology of comparison, individual transactions basis GATT 268, 309

“so as to afford protection”

design and structure of measure as evidence of protective application GATT 317

intention of legislators/regulators, relevance GATT 317

preparatory work (VCLT 32), GATT III:8 GATT 389, DSU 1639

relationships within and between agreements, GATS/GATT GATT 427

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of DSU 859

law vs fact, “like products” (GATT II:2), determination as DSU 841, 859

legal findings or developed interpretations, limitation to (DSU 17.13) DSU 841, 859

TRIMs, relationship with other agreements, SCM Agreement TRIMs 8

 

Canada — Periodicals (Panel), WT/DS31/R and Corr.1, DSR 1997:I

GATS Agreement, GATT 1994 overlap WTO 25, GATT 427, GATS 246

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase GATS 25

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) WTO 25, DSU 1716

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

relevant factors

end-uses GATT 248

nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 248, DSU 598 n. 955

national treatment, payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as exception (GATT III:8(b)), expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to GATT 389

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI), “prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1), import prohibition GATT 607

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2), coexistence WTO 25

 

Canada — Pharmaceutical Patents (Panel), WT/DS114/R, DSR 2000:V

Berne Convention/TRIPS, relationship (TRIPS 9), incorporation, effect TRIPS 201

burden of proof (general rules), impossible burden, proving a negative DSU 568

legitimate interests, TRIPS 30 TRIPS 189, 198203

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“discriminate” (TRIPS 27.1) TRIPS 1778

“normal” (TRIPS 13/TRIPS 30) TRIPS 195

patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

exclusive rights (TRIPS 28) TRIPS 188

limited exceptions (TRIPS 30)

applicability of TRIPS 27.1 TRIPS 1845

balance of agreement as a whole and TRIPS 191

compensatory adjustment TRIPS 203

conditions/criteria (“limited”) TRIPS 189

curtailment of owner’s rights TRIPS 1924

economic impact TRIPS 1934

“exploitation of patent” TRIPS 1957

“legitimate interests” TRIPS 198203

legal rights distinguished TRIPS 200

“normal exploitation” TRIPS 1956

cumulative nature TRIPS 1924

“discrimination” (TRIPS 27.1), applicability TRIPS 1845

“exception” TRIPS 136

patentable subject matter (TRIPS 27)

“discrimination” (TRIPS 27.1)

applicability to TRIPS 30 and 31 TRIPS 1845

de facto discrimination TRIPS 1778

exceptions (TRIPS 30), applicability TRIPS 1845

relationships within and between agreements, TRIPS 27.1/TRIPS 30 and 31 TRIPS 1845

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2), “limited exceptions” (TRIPS 17), burden of proof TRIPS 144

TRIPS Agreement, object and purpose (preamble/TRIPS 7), balance of rights and obligations TRIPS 191

 

Canada — Pharmaceutical Patents (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS114/13, DSR 2002:I

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

15-month guideline DSU 1039

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1052

burden of proof DSU 1086

complexity of implementation process DSU 1052

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1056

as legal determination DSU 1030

limitation to cases of impracticality DSU 1014

“particular circumstances” DSU 1043

shortest period possible within Member’s normal legislative process DSU 1030

structural adjustment, relevance of need for DSU 1063

 

Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports (AB), WT/DS276/AB/R, DSR 2004:VI

judicial economy

definition DSU 641, 655

discretionary nature DSU 641

relationships within and between agreements, GATT XVII:1(a)/GATT XVII:1(b) GATT 729, 731, 7345

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, panel as trier of facts DSU 610

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence

discretion in selection of evidence to refer to explicitly DSU 610

egregious error, need for DSU 610

State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII)

GATT XVII:1(a) and 1(b), interrelationship GATT 729, 731, 735

non-discriminatory treatment (GATT I general principle) (GATT XVII:1(a)) and GATT 724, 7267

“shall be understood to require” (GATT XVII:1(b))

“adequate opportunity” GATT 732

“commercial considerations” GATT 731

 

Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports (Panel), WT/DS276/R, DSR 2004:VI

consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6), information in the public domain DSU 162

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, “reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure, “reasonably available” GATT 928

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements

“necessary” to secure compliance

balancing of factors GATT 917

“reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 917

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), establishment of new panel during preparation of preliminary rulings DSU 129

Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), definitions, “participate” (GPA VIII(c)) GPA 22

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

case-by-case approach DSU 211

“identify”, sufficiency of, reference to general measure DSU 211

ordinary meaning DSU 211

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT XVII:1(b)/GPA VIII(c) GPA 22

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), which measures violate which provisions requirement DSU 321

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), relevant factors, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 339

multiple complainants (DSU 9), single panel, “whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1), separate panel reports (DSU 9.2), structure DSU 453

multiple panels/same parties/same dispute, separate panel reports DSU 453

multiple panels/same parties/same dispute (DSU 9.3) DSU 462

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“laws, regulations or requirements”, non-mandatory measures GATT 352

“requirements”, non-mandatory measures GATT 352

TRIMs and TRIMs 17

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “identify the specific measure at issue” (DSU 6.2) DSU 211

preliminary rulings on

claims outside terms of reference DSU 462

establishment of new panel during preparation of, good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 129

specificity of request for panel (DSU 6.2) DSU 462

third party rights DSU 501

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects), third parties’ rights relating to DSU 501

relationships within and between agreements, GATT III:4/TRIMs 2 TRIMs 17

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

compliance, importance of, failure to comply, request for/establishment of second panel DSU 462

due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 211

State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII)

circumvention of obligations, prevention GATT 7212

“shall be understood to require” (GATT XVII:1(b)), “participate in”, GPA VIII(c) compared GPA 22

third party rights, preliminary proceedings, participation in DSU 935

 

Cancún Ministerial Conference (2003)

Doha Round stocktaking WTO 58

Ministerial Statement WTO 58

 

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of)

14.173–219: see also determination of injury (AD 3), causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5); transitional safeguard measures (SG) (China) (Accession Protocol 16)

Accession Protocol (China) and SG 32532

analysis of conditions of competition SG 1905

like product determination compared SG 191

price analysis and SG 190, 192, 194

relevant factors SG 1935, 325, 330

coincidence of trends in imports and in injury factors SG 1829

“demonstrates” SG 77, 17381, 1878, 193, 208, 217

“on the basis of objective data” SG 174, 179, 181, 191

general approach to SG 173215

order of analysis SG 2025

quantification, relevance SG 21113

reasoned and adequate explanation (SG 4.2(a)) GATT 801, SG 702, 181, 20910, 330

relevance in absence of serious injury SG 74 n. 128, 175, 21718

“serious injury” (SG 5.1) distinguished SG 226

 

Chile — Alcoholic Beverages (AB), WT/DS87/AB/R, WT/DS110/AB/R7DSR 2000:I

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) DSU 60, 988

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

“so as to afford protection”

design and structure of measure as evidence of protective application GATT 319, RO 5

intention of legislators/regulators, relevance GATT 319, RO 5

necessity of tax, relevance GATT 319

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7), sufficiency DSU 701

rules of origin disciplines (RO 2) (transition period), trade objectives, exclusion as instrument of (RO 2(b)), intention, relevance RO 5

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), panel reports and DSU 988

 

Chile — Alcoholic Beverages (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS87/15

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 1008

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21)

prompt compliance (DSU 21.1)

adoption of report, obligation to begin implementation following DSU 1005

flexibility DSU 1001

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1007

“reasonable” DSU 1037

 

Chile — Price Band System (AB), WT/DS207/AB/R, DSR 2002:VIII

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

object and purpose (preamble)

developing countries’ needs and conditions AG 4

fair and market-oriented agricultural trading system AG 4

market access (AG 4) AG 34

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) DSU 326, 416

customs duties, “ordinary customs duties” (GATT II(1)(b)/AG 4.2) GATT 174, AG 425, DSU 1660

developing countries (AG preamble), needs and conditions AG 4

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

objective assessment obligations (DSU 11) and DSU 618, 680

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties DSU 343, 618, 676

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)) AG 40

scheduling practice AG 42

dictionaries AG 41, 57

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty AG 36, 38, 66

grammar, respect for AG 37

“ordinary meaning … in their context … in light of object and purpose” (VCLT 31(1)) AG 379

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, AG 4.2/AG 5 AG 39

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AG 37

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 326

market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1)

border measures

distorting effect AG 63

“similar border measures” (footnote 1)

“similar” AG 579

tariff caps and AG 612

“converted” AG 41

developing countries (preamble) and AG 4

failure to convert by due date, effect AG 37

“have been required to be converted” AG 37, 39

“have been converted” (AG 5) distinguished AG 39

interpretation, rules governing AG 3740

subsequent practice (VCLT 32(3)(b)) AG 40

measure and result of measure distinguished AG 46

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2 footnote 1) AG 54

object and purpose (preamble) and AG 4

“ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2)/ GATT II:1(b) GATT 174, AG 425, DSU 1660

special safeguards (AG 5.1) and AG 39

timing of obligation AG 37, 47

“variable import levies” (footnote 1) AG 51

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 258, 380, 399400

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2 and footnote 1) AG 54

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) AG 42, DSU 1660

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

claims and arguments distinguished DSU 1411, 1429 n. 2228

DSU 6.2 compared DSU 1412

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“concessions” AG 42

“ordinary customs duty” AG 42

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1660

“variable import levies” (AG 4.2) AG 51

preparatory work (VCLT 32), AG 4.2 AG 37

relationships within and between agreements

AG 4.2/GATT II:2 GATT 174

AG 4.2/GATT Annex 5 AG 45

AG 4.2V/GATT II:1(b) GATT 174, AG 425, DSU 1660

AG 4.2/GATT II:2 AG 45

AG 4.2/Guidelines for the Calculation of Tariff Equivalents (Attachment to AG Annex 5) AG 46

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 343

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b)), customs duties based on exogenous factors AG 43

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

law vs fact, panel’s classification of measure, relevance DSU 850

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, discretion in assessment of evidence DSU 850

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

due process and DSU 618, 680

ultra petita finding on provision not before it DSU 537, 618, 680

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue

implied claims DSU 343, 416, 676

specific legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation to DSU 416

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), panel’s right to draw on third party submissions DSU 495

 

Chile — Price Band System (Panel), WT/DS207/R, DSR 2002:VIII

“agricultural products” (AG 2/Annex 1), applicability AG 22

balance of payments restrictions (GATT XII), as exception to GATT obligations GATT 649

composition of panel (DSU 8), eligibility (DSU 8.) DSU 430

consultations (DSU 4)

continuance of identified measures after consultations (DSU 4.4), effect DSU 149

measure at issue (DSU 4.4), measure subsequent to request for consultations, extension of existing measure distinguished DSU 149

notification of request for (DSU 4.4), identification of measure at issue requirement DSU 149

customs duties, “ordinary customs duties” (GATT II(1)(b)/AG 4.2) GATT 143

emergency action (GATT XIX)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a))

“as a pertinent issue of fact and law” /publication (SG 3.1) GATT 807

“demonstration”, need for GATT 807

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1)

measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence, recommendation to implement measure inconsistent with agreement, exclusion DSU 930, 932

panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 975

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2), Secretariat role WTO 201

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries AG 57 n. 91, SG 100, DSU 1660

market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1)

exceptions to GATT obligations, exclusion (footnote 1) GATT 649

“ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2)/ GATT II:1(b) GATT 1435

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) DSU 1660

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1660

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), agreement to, indirect benefits and DSU 975

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1660

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions on all pertinent issues of fact and law, authorities’ obligation (SG 3.1) GATT 807

“publish” / “make publicly available”, equivalence SG 100

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1), “as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)), “demonstration”, need for GATT 807

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.4 footnote 1/GATT XII GATT 649

AG 4.2/GATT II:1(b) GATT 1435

safeguard measures, duration and review (SG 7), extension of measure (SG 7.1), whether distinct measure DSU 149

Secretariat (WTO VI), role, interpretation of covered agreements WTO 201

Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM), dispute settlement/enforcement of specific obligations, exclusion (TRMS A (i)) TPRM 6

 

Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS207/13, DSR 2003:III

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 1009

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose AG 64

market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1)

border measures, “similar border measures” (footnote 1), “similar” AG 60

“variable import levies” (footnote 1) AG 52

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1050 n. 1633

arbitrator’s limited mandate, determination of reasonable period DSU 1022

effect on society, relevance DSU 1055

obligation to commence implementation in good time DSU 1045

relationships within and between agreements, AG 4.2/AG 5 AG 75

special safeguards (AG 5), market access (AG 4) and, as exemption from AG 4.2 requirements AG 75

 

Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.5 — Argentina) (AB), WT/DS207/AB/RW

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1391

burden of proof (general rules), Article 21.5 compliance proceedings DSU 582

interim review (DSU 15), failure to inform panel of errors DSU 787

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), new evidence DSU 853

 

China

see also transitional safeguard measures (SG) (China) (Accession Protocol 16)

ATC safeguard measures (ATC 6), TMB discussion ATC 13

General Exceptions (GATT) and GATT 9515

 

China — Auto Parts (AB), WT/DS339/AB/R, WT/DS340/AB/R, WT/DS342/AB/R

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16 (2)), modification of date of oral hearing (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1396

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to DSU 1626

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS), as aid to interpretation of covered agreements/as context for purposes of GATT 127

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 1558

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS) as GATT 127

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate AB reports DSU 460

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “charge of any kind” GATT 62

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

domestic law concepts, relevance DSU 1626

“on their importation” (GATT II:1(b)) GATT 145

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II:1(b)/GATT III:2 GATT 167

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS), as aid to interpretation of covered agreements/as context for purposes of GATT 127

interpretation and clarification, context (VCLT 31(2)), other terms in Schedule GATT 127

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b)), internal duty distinguished GATT 167

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b)), “on their importation” GATT 144

 

China — Auto Parts (Panel), WT/DS339/R, WT/DS340/R, WT/DS342/R and Add.1 and Add.2 DSU 793

as aid to interpretation of covered agreements/as context for purposes of GATT 123, 127

“as presented” GATT 123

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 793

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10), Informal Group on Anti-Circumvention, ADP Committee Decision on (April 1997), GATT II and AD 1018

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, “laws or regulations” GATT 925

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), presumption of DSU 104

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS)

as aid to interpretation of covered agreements/as context for purposes of GATT 123, 127

“as presented” GATT 123

Explanatory and Chapter Notes, status GATT 126

interim review (DSU 15), new evidence DSU 793

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, context (VCLT 31(2)), Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS) as GATT 127

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

hypothetical “like product” GATT 51

relevant factors, nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 251, 340

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1665

presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33(3)) DSU 1665

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “laws, regulations or requirements”, non-mandatory measures GATT 354

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2), “charge of any kind” GATT 62, 262

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1665

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

interpretation and clarification, other terms in Schedule as context GATT 127

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b)), internal duty distinguished GATT 167

 

China — Intellectual Property Rights (Panel), WT/DS362/R

Berne Convention/TRIPS

control of circulation, presentation or exhibition (Berne 17) TRIPS 1034

enforcement of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Part III), applicability in absence of Berne protection TRIPS 221

English and French texts compared TRIPS 103 n. 105, 103 n. 106, 103 n. 107

interpretation, role of WIPO International Bureau TRIPS 103 n. 104

rights guaranteed/ protected “works” (Berne 5(1)) TRIPS 901

border measures, special measures related to enforcement of (TRIPS Part III Section 4)

destruction or disposal of infringing goods (TRIPS 59) TRIPS 23662

“disposal”, ambiguity TRIPS 245

English, French and Spanish texts compared TRIPS 245

“exceptional circumstances” TRIPS 262

“infringing goods” TRIPS 2368

initiation of procedures as responsibility of rights holder TRIPS 244

“other infringing goods” (TRIPS 51) TRIPS 2378

“principles set out in Article 46”

alternative disposal methods as such preventing compliance with principles TRIPS 252

as alternative to duplicating text of TRIPS 46 TRIPS 247

alternatives to destruction TRIPS 253

“avoid harm” TRIPS 251

common objective TRIPS 248

disposal by auction, whether mandatory TRIPS 2535

link to “authority” TRIPS 246

list of TRIPS 248

“outside the channels of commerce” TRIPS 250

result vs purpose TRIPS 250

risks of reinfringement TRIPS 25960, 262

“simple” TRIPS 258, 2601

simple removal of trademark TRIPS 25662

“shall have the authority” TRIPS 23944

conditional, whether TRIPS 243

discretionary nature TRIPS 241, 244, 257

duration of authority TRIPS 239

risk of WTO-inconsistent measures TRIPS 242

to order remedies other than TRIPS 59 measures TRIPS 2412

suspension of release (TRIPS 51) TRIPS 2345

“other infringing goods” TRIPS 2378

“provisions set out below” TRIPS 234

scope TRIPS 235

burden of proof (general rules), sovereignty issues DSU 1741

criminal procedures (TRIPS 61)

absolute nature of obligation TRIPS 267

conformity with relative standard, benchmark TRIPS 274

limitations on obligation TRIPS 2689

minimum international standard requirement TRIPS 265

obligation to make remedies available (TRIPS 41.1) TRIPS 264

“on a commercial scale” TRIPS 269, 2714

burden of proof TRIPS 273

de minimis (TRIPS 60) compared TRIPS 274

“trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy” TRIPS 2704

domestic law, as justification for failure to fulfil international obligations, exclusion (VCLT 27) TRIPS 5

intellectual property rights, enforcement (TRIPS Part III)

“acts of infringement” (TRIPS 41.1) TRIPS 217

“other remedies” (TRIPS 46)

exhaustiveness of TRIPS 46 list TRIPS 231

preparatory work in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) TRIPS 229

proportionality requirement TRIPS 230

rights not protected by Berne Convention and TRIPS 221

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law DSU 1619

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

TRIPS 41–3/TRIPS 61 TRIPS 266

TRIPS 41/TRIPS 59 (“shall have the authority”) TRIPS 241

TRIPS 60/TRIPS 61 TRIPS 275

“special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 1610

supplementary means (VCLT 32), “recourse may be had” DSU 1633

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts TRIPS 249

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1666

presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33(3)) DSU 1667

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“avoid” (TRIPS 46) TRIPS 251

“disposal” (TRIPS 59) TRIPS 245

“infringing goods” (TRIPS 59) TRIPS 236

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and DSU 1666

preparatory work (VCLT 32)

ambiguity and (VCLT 32(1)) TRIPS 229

TRIPS 46 TRIPS 229

procedures (TRIPS 61), evidence and procedure TRIPS 266

proportionality, “other remedies” (TRIPS 46) TRIPS 230

relationships within and between agreements, TRIPS 51/TRIPS 59 TRIPS 2378

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 191

sovereignty, burden of proof and DSU 1741

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 191

TRIPS Agreement

implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1)

domestic law, relevance TRIPS 5

freedom to choose method TRIPS 11

 

China — Publications and Audiovisual Products (AB), WT/DS363/AB/R

arguendo assumptions

guidelines on the use of DSU 661

security and predictability (DSU 11) and DSU 4950

“to enhance simplicity” DSU 49, 661

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), “clarification of existing provisions” DSU 49, 661

GATS Agreement

GATT 1994 overlap GATT 4278, TRIMs 8 n. 12, GATS 29

object and purpose (preamble), progressive liberalization, technological developments and GATS 45

General Exceptions (GATT XX(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals

accession protocol (China), applicability GATT 9512

balance between restrictive effect on international trade and “necessity” GATT 8867

“necessary”, impact on importers and GATT 885

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), in dubio mitius principle DSU 1735

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries, cautious approach to DSU 1553

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law GATS 4–5, DSU 1620

in dubio mitius principle, as supplementary means of interpretation DSU 1735

supplementary means (VCLT 32), as confirmation DSU 1656

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1553

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), TRIMs and TRIMs 19

relationships within and between agreements, GATT III:4/TRIMs 3 TRIMs 19, 21

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2)

arguendo assumptions and DSU 4950, 6612

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law and GATS 5, DSU 1621

sovereignty, in dubio mitius principle and DSU 1735

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, arguendo assumptions and DSU 4950

 

China — Publications and Audiovisual Products (Panel), WT/DS363/R and Corr.1

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX) GATS 199

GATS Agreement

“commercial presence” (GATS XXVIII(d)) GATS 227

GATT 1994 overlap GATS 29

object and purpose (preamble)

balance of rights and obligations GATS 3

progressive liberalization, technological developments and GATS 34

“sector” (GATS XXVIII(e)) GATS 229

General Exceptions (GATT XX(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals

accession protocol (China), applicability GATT 9512

balance between restrictive effect on international trade and “necessity” GATT 886

“necessary”

analysis as multi-step process GATT 8824

impact on importers and GATT 885

“public morals” GATT 87981

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

identification of product, need for DSU 232 n. 324

identification within narrative of request requirement DSU 222

“identify”, sufficiency of, reference to general measure DSU 222

omission of measure, good faith assumption that it was not being challenged DSU 222

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law GATS 34

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATS XVII/GATT III:4 (“less favourable treatment”) GATS 131

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 333

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), nationality of producer or origin of product (“hypothetical” like products) GATT 340

market access (GATS XVI)

excluded measures (GATS XVI:2) GATS 99

relationship between GATS XVI:1 and VI:2 GATS 99

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1), “affecting” (GATS I:1) GATS 13

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “affecting” GATT 363, 367

national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII)

“commercial presence” (GATS XXVIII(d)) and GATS 227

conditions and qualifications (GATS XVII:1) GATS 127

elements of claim GATS 125

“like service and service supplier” (GATS XVII:1), wholesale transactions GATS 129

“treatment no less favourable” (GATS XVII:2) GATS 1301

burden of proof GATS 131

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

distinct elements reviewed DSU 195

omission of measure, good faith assumption that it was not being challenged identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2) DSU 213

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX)

inscription of measures inconsistent with GATS XVI and GATS XVII (GATS XX:2) GATS 196

as integral part of GATS (GATS XX:3) GATS 199

interpretation and clarification, supplementary means of interpretation (VCLT 32), summary of AB guidance on potentially relevant instruments GATS 179

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment, panel’s right to choose position other than that articulated by parties DSU 523

“trade in services” (GATS 1:2), cross-border trade (GATS I:2(a)), relevant factors, means of delivery GATS 15

 

China — Raw Materials (Panel), WT/DS394/R and Corr.1, WT/DS395/R and Corr.1, WT/DS398/R and Corr.1

accession protocols

as balance of rights and obligations WTO 253

as integral part of WTO Agreement (WTO II:2) WTO 253

fees and formalities connected with importation and exportation “limited … to the approximate cost of services rendered” (GATT VIII:1(a)), bidding/auctioning and GATT 5023

General Exceptions (GATT XX(a)), measures necessary to protect public morals, accession protocol (China), applicability GATT 9535

General Exceptions (GATT XX(g)), measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources, “exhaustible natural resources”, GATT XI:2(a) distinguished GATT 635

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

“identify”, sufficiency of, “among others” DSU 224

“specific”, security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) and DSU 224

Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2), quantitative restrictions (GATT XI:1) and GATT 629

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), sovereignty DSU 1605

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), “any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 1565

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1605, 1743

licensing requirement, as QR (GATT XI:1) GATT 606, 614

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 383

prospective measure, “of the same essence” DSU 383

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

“laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1)

failure to fix quota as GATT 517

“made effective” GATT 528

measures of general application (GATT X:1) GATT 525

“shall be published” (GATT X:1), “in such a manner as to enable …” GATT 537

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a))

“impartial”

absence of guidelines or standards and GATT 571

conflict of interest and GATT 572

“reasonable”, absence of guidelines or standards and GATT 577

“uniform” GATT 567

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

“export prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:2(a))

burden of proof GATT 631

“essential products” GATT 634

GATT XX(g) distinguished GATT 635

identity of meaning with GATT XI:1 GATT 632

“prevent or relieve critical shortages” GATT 635

“temporarily applied” GATT 633

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1)

import prohibition, enforcement measures GATT 611

licensing requirements GATT 606, 614

minimum export price requirement GATT 617

prohibition or restriction on exportation or sale for export GATT 629

relationships within and between agreements

GATT XI:1/GATT XI:2 GATT 632

GATT XI:1/TRIMs Illustrative List GATT 629

GATT XI:2(a)/GATT XX(g) GATT 635

security and predictability ofWTO obligations (DSU 3.2), specificity in request for establishment of a panel DSU 224

sovereignty

conclusion of treaty as exercise of inherent sovereign right DSU 17423

as a rule/fundamental principle of international law DSU 1605

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

abandoned claim, right to resurrect DSU 414

request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 414

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 487

treaties, conclusion as exercise of inherent sovereign right DSU 17423

TRIMs Agreement, quantitativemeasures (GATT XI and) GATT 629

 

Chinese Taipei, accession protocol, Special Exchange Agreement GATT 706

 

cinematograph film (GATT IV), GATT practice GATT 431

 

circumvention of quotas: see textile quotas, circumvention (ATC 5)

 

Civil Aircraft Agreement: see Aircraft Agreement (AIR)

 

claims and arguments: see legal basis of claim; notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)); notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)), claims and arguments distinguished; standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7); third party rights

 

Codex Alimentarius Commission, cooperation with

definitions, relevance to SPS measures (Annex A(1)) SPS 479

Equivalence Decision (SPS 4) SPS 11516

food safety standards and SPS 70

panel’s decision not to seek information from (DSU 13.1) DSU 754

provision of information to SPS Committee SPS 2

 

coherence in global economic policy-making: see IMF/WTO relationship (WTO III:5), Declaration on Coherence in Global Economic Policymaking (1994)

 

collegiality (DSB/AB) DSU 1148 n. 1802, 1369

 

Colombia, ATC safeguard measures (ATC 6), TMB discussion ATC 32, 49, 69

 

Colombia — Ports of Entry (Panel), WT/DS366/R and Corr.1

burden of proof (general rules), implementation measures, reasonable period for (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 581, 1089

customs value determination (VAL)

“customs valuation”

customs control distinguished VAL 1

“customs value” (VAL 15.1(a)) as aid to interpretation VAL 1

ordinary/dictionary meaning VAL 12

“reasonable means” (VAL 7)

“cannot be determined” (VAL 7.1), minimum customs values, exclusion (VAL 7(2)), developing countries’ right to suspend (Annex III, para. 2) VAL 41

higher of two alternative values, exclusion (VAL 7.2(b)) VAL 40

obligation to inform importer of determined customs value and method used (VAL 7.3) VAL 43

prohibited customs valuation methods (VAL 7.2) VAL 39

sequencing nature of VAL 1–7 valuation methods VAL 89

surety for ultimate payment (VAL 13), payment vs guarantee VAL 23

transaction value, as primary basis (VAL 1) VAL 12

freedom of transit (GATT V)

“date of this Agreement” (GATT XXVI:1) and GATT 444

GATT V:5 and V:6 compared GATT 439

“no distinction shall be made” (GATT V:2) GATT 4368

“products which have been in transit” (GATT V:6) GATT 4403

ordinary meaning GATT 440

“there shall be freedom of transit” (GATT V:2), ordinary meaning GATT 434

“traffic in transit” (GATT V:1)

Barcelona Convention and Statute on Freedom Transit (1921) as basis GATT 433

preparatory work (VCLT 32) GATT 4323

transshipment and GATT 4345

GATT, “date of this agreement” (GATT XXVI:1), GATT V and GATT 444

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, “necessary” to secure compliance, balancing of factors GATT 920

Illustrative List (TRIMs 2.2), QRs (GATT XI:1) and GATT 646

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), impracticality of immediate compliance/reasonable period of time (DSU 21.3, chapeau), burden of proof (general rules) DSU 581, 1089

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), title GATT 441

dictionaries VAL 12

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) TRIMs 18

“like product” (GATT I)

“like product” analysis

explicit discrimination and GATT 401

hypothetical imports GATT 41

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 259

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, differential treatment on the basis of origin of product and GATT 53

“advantage”, flexible import procedures GATT 36

“all rules and formalities” GATT 29

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“customs valuation” (VAL) VAL 12

“freedom of transit” (GATT V:1) GATT 434

“products which have been in transit” (GATT V:6) GATT 440

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects), working procedures, need for DSU 347

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

GATT XIII and GATT 685

“prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1)

equality of competitive conditions as test GATT 605

restrictions on ports of entry GATT 620

trade effects, relevance GATT 605

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I:1/GATT V:6 GATT 445

GATT V:5/GATT V:6 GATT 439, 441

GATT XI:1/TRIMs 2/Illustrative List TRIMs 18

GATT XI/GATT XIII GATT 685

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 212

  

Colombia — Ports of Entry (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS366/13

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), “reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1071

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), prompt compliance (DSU 21.1), modification of underlying economic or social conditions distinguished DSU 1000

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings, surveillance (DSU 21), prompt compliance (DSU 21.1), flexibility DSU 1003

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

arbitrator’s limited mandate, determination of reasonable period DSU 1025

burden of proof DSU 1089

coordination with other changes, relevance DSU 1082

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1071

multiple possibilities DSU 1094

obligation to commence implementation in good time DSU 1047

 

Commercial Interest Reference Rate (CIRR), relevance to determination of “material advantage” (Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)) SCM 6325, 650

 

Committee on Specific Commitments

activities GATS 1735

establishment GATS 215

terms of reference GATS 215

 

compensation for non-compliance with covered agreement or DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22): see suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

 

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17)

see also standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6); standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6); standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11); terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

“clarification of existing provisions” DSU 49, 51, 523, 57, 299, 386, 529, 630, 639, 661, 703

compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 77, 3646, 367, 369, 438, 800, 1126, 1327, 141920

as general rule of international arbitration DSU 366, 1327, 1702

competence of panel and AB compared AD 9256, DSU 605, 846

determination of establishment/termination of panel DSU 182

ex aequo et bono jurisdiction, exclusion DSU 1708

finding on issue not raised by parties DSU 438

“make such other findings”, judicial economy and, 17.637–56:

see also judicial economy

“may uphold, modify or reverse” legal findings (DSU 17.13)

“legal findings and conclusions”: see standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), legal findings or developed interpretations, limitation to (DSU 17.13)

legal status, “moot” / “of no legal effect” finding DSU 8935

unappealed findings WTO 281, GATT 1041, DSU 822, 892

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) SPS 503, DSU 601, 155, 9889, 1147 n. 1795, 1551, 1708

right to “seek redress” (DSU 23.1) and DSU 1303

obligation to exercise jurisdiction/should make an objective assessment GATT 1044, DSU 518, 5356

preservation of rights and obligations of Members under covered agreements GATT 562

right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) DSU 324, 326, 328, 416, 5745, 1710

“shall address the relevant provisions/each issue” (DSU 7.2/DSU 17.12), judicial economy and DSU 422, 8901

 

competition policy: see trade and competition policy, interaction between (Doha 23–5)

 

compliance with covered agreement obligations, obligation

breach by other Members, relevance AD 386, 509

as preferred solution (DSU 22.1) DSU 1330

 

composition of delegation

legal representation/private counsel DSU 7227

Member’s right to determine DSU 722, 723, 915, 1732

panel working procedures DSU 722, 727, 1212

preliminary ruling on DSU 914

 

composition of panel (DSU 8)

see also panellists

citizens of parties (DSU 8.3) DSU 439

TMB distinguished DSU 433

determination by Director-General (DSU 8.7)

challenge to DSU 43740

Deputy Director-General in place of DSU 441

discretionary nature DSU 440

determination by panel DSU 438 n. 721, 1494

“diverse background” (DSU 8.2) DSU 431, 1356

eligibility (DSU 8.) DSU 430

five-member panel (DSU 8.5) DSU 436

indicative list (DSU 8.4) DSU 435

preliminary ruling on DSU 437, 1494

replacement of panellist DSU 442

 

confidential information (AD 6.5)

access to information provided by another interested party (AD 6.1.1/AD 6.1.2) and AD 452

access to parties’ own confidential information AD 491

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis”, distinguishability AD 496500

disclosure “without specific permission” AD 508

“good cause shown” AD 452, 496, 5024

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis” distinction, relevance AD 496500

as responsibility of party submitting information AD 496

“shown” AD 5057

justification for request, relevance AD 518

non-confidential summaries (AD 6.5.1)

access to confidential information, relevance AD 51617

as balance between protection of confidentiality and need to ensure opportunity to defend interests AD 512, 514, 598, 606

obligation to provide/evaluation of sufficiency AD 513

purpose AD 511

statement of reasons why information “not susceptible of summary” AD 452, 50915

“parties to an investigation” AD 501

public notice of determinations (AD 12) and AD 599, 646

publicly available information AD 499

right to rely on AD 598600, 845

unwarranted request for confidentiality, right to disregard information (AD 6.5.2) AD 598 n. 830

 

confidential information (SCM 12.4)

non-confidential summaries (SCM 12.4.1)

access to confidential information, relevance SCM 383

statement of reasons why information “not susceptible of summary” SCM 3846

“in exceptional circumstances” SCM 3856

“sufficient detail to permit a reasonable understanding” SCM 3823

 

confidential information (SG 3.2) SG 11011

non-confidential summaries SG 111

panel’s right to seek information or technical advice (DSU 13/SPS 11.2), relevance SG 11315

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) and SG 112

 

confidential information (VAL 10) VAL 47

 

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27)

see also business confidential information (BCI); confidential information (AD 6.5); confidential information (SG 3.2); consultations (DSU 4), confidentiality (DSU 4.6); WTO documents, General Council Decisions on circulation and derestriction

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (DSU 13) and SG 115, DSU 561

alleged breach DSU 91318

amicus curiae briefs and DSU 126, 914, 917

arbitration (DSU 25.3), acceptance of information or technical advice (DSU 13) and DSU 764, 1334

Article 22.6 proceedings DSU 927

“deliberations” (DSU 14.1) DSU 76970

international tribunal practice DSU 770 n. 1233

evidence of breach DSU 914

interim review reports DSU 81316, 913, 918

non-confidential summary of information (DSU 18.2) DSU 912, 915 n. 1441, 1335

non-derogable elements DSU 888

obligation to respect/ensure respect for DSU 7256, 914, 919, 928

panel’s right to seek information or technical advice (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), relevance SG 113–15, DSU 764, 1334

preliminary rulings on DSU 917

private counsel/advisers not part of delegation and DSU 91418, 148890

joint representation DSU 928, 1490

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) DSU 886

public hearings: see public hearings

“submissions” and statements of own position distinguished DSU 734, 887, 910

third party obligations DSU 517

third party rights (ABWP 27) DSU 888

time limits for non-disclosure DSU 911

 

confidentiality of proceedings (RoC VII:1) DSU 14867

public hearings and DSU 1483

“shall in no way modify the rights and obligations” requirement (RoC II) and DSU 14834

 

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with AD obligations, obligation to ensure (AD 18.4)

classification as law, regulation or administrative procedure

applicability of WTO law AD 970 n. 1324

normative value as determining factor DSU 264, 2813

dispute settlement procedures (AD 17) and AD 876, 970

finding of non-conformity under any AD provision WTO 290, 291, AD 9789

legislation “as such” and AD 878, 969

zeroing procedures and AD 1435

maintenance of inconsistent legislation AD 968

notification of laws and regulations (AD 18.5) AD 9724

absence of legislation AD 972

notification of changes AD 972

notifications AD 973

observer government obligations and AD 972

to relevant laws and regulations AD 972

US Customs Bond Directive AD 974

 

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with LIC Agreement (LIC 8.2(a)), obligation to inform LIC Committee of changes (LIC 8.2(b)), procedures LIC 52

 

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with SCM obligations, obligation to ensure (SCM 32.5) SCM 5968

notification of changes to laws and regulations (SCM32.6) SCM 599

 

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4)

1.286–95: see also legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

characterization of transaction under domestic law, relevance DSU 528, 1625

“existing legislation” exceptions, exclusion SPS 588

judicial decisions WTO 288

non-performance of obligations under covered agreements, exclusion of domestic law as justification (VCLT 27) GATS 140, TRIPS 5, DSU 151620, 1679

Schedule of concessions and WTO 287

suspension of concessions (DSU 22) and WTO 289

technical regulations (TBT 2.4) and TBT 50

 

consolidated tariff databases

Consolidated Tariff Schedules (CTS) Data Base WTO 135, GATT 1823

dissemination and access GATT 1879

Integrated Data Base (IDB) WTO 135, GATT 1856

loose-leaf schedules GATT 181

format for inclusion of agricultural commitments GATT 184

Market Access Committee decisions relating to WTO 135, GATT 1819

 

consultation and dispute settlement (AD 17)

GATT XXII and XXIII compared AD 8734, 888, 9445

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

see also identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

legal basis for consultation/claim (AD 17.3/AD 17.4)

legislation as such: see legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4), AD 17.3/AD 17.4

“measure” (AD 17.4)

continued zeroing AD 145, 8967

provisional measures AD 8945

“matter”, referral to DSB (AD 17.4)

identification of measure at issue requirement (DSU 6.2), identification as anti-dumping duty, acceptance of price undertaking or provisional measure, need for AD 890, 891

identification of measure at issue requirement (DSU 6.2), sufficiency AD 899

“if final action has been taken” AD 88997

“matter” AD 898, 951, DSU 370

specificity AD 899

request for establishment of panel, requirements (AD 17.5), DSU 6.2 and AD 903, 948

review (AD 17.6) AD 910

special or additional rule and procedure (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), whether AD 8702, 888, 954, DSU 1314, 15

standard/powers of review: see standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

 

consultation and dispute settlement (RO 7 and 8) RO 25

 

consultation and dispute settlement (TBT 14)

technical expert group, panel’s right to establish (TBT 14.2) TBT 1478, DSU 25

DSU 13.2 compared TBT 147, DSU 25

individual advice, right to seek TBT 147

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 25

 

consultation and dispute settlement (VAL 19)

standard of review of claims under (DSU 11) VAL 47

applicability of DSU 11 VAL 4

VAL 1.1 and 1.2(a) claims VAL 5

VAL 7.1 claims VAL 67

 

consultation (PSI 7) PSI 27

 

consultations (ATC 6.7)

due process and ATC 76

obligatory nature ATC 79

retroactivity (trade measures) (ATC 6.10) and ATC 76

specific and factual information as up to date as possible

presentation of information ATC 69

TMB review and ATC 27, 32, 6973

 

consultations (DSU 4)

acceleration (DSU 4.9), panel’s workload and DSU 174

addendum to original request DSU 150

adequacy of consultations (DSU 4.5), Panel responsibilities in relation to DSU 1601, 161, 163, 170

conditional request DSU 146, 148

confidentiality (DSU 4.6)

determining adequacy of consultations and DSU 163

disclosure of information obtained in different proceedings DSU 167

disclosure of information obtained in same proceedings DSU 1646

information in the public domain DSU 162

offers of settlement during consultations and DSU 168

third party participation and DSU 169

consultations (SCM 4.1–4) compared DSU 140, 142

continuance of identified measures after consultations (DSU 4.4), effect DSU 149

developing countries and (DSU 4.10), extension of periods agreed under DSU 4.7 and 4.8 (DSU 12.10) DSU 713

disclosure obligation DSU 138, 303, 675

evidence obtained during, admissibility in panel proceedings DSU 630

GATT practice DSU 151

good faith and (DSU 4.3) DSU 105, 128, 132, 1545

confidential information as evidence of bad faith DSU 154, 165

identity of specific measures in the consultations and the request for establishment of a panel, relevance DSU 1425, 417

preliminary ruling on DSU 417, 427

“scope” as basis for comparison DSU 147

joinder of third parties having “substantial trade interest” (DSU 4.11) DSU 1756, 468

legal status of offers made in course of unsuccessful consultations ATC 26, DSU 168

measure at issue (DSU 4.4)

“affecting” DSU 152

discretion in identifying (DSU 4.2), desirability DSU 152, 200 n. 267

expired measures (DSU 4.2) DSU 152

measure subsequent to request for consultations, extension of existing measure distinguished DSU 149

mutually agreed solution (DSU 3.6) and DSU 136, 170

notification of request for (DSU 4.4)

identification of measure at issue DSU 157

“identification of specific measure” (DSU 6.2) distinguished DSU 157

legal basis of the complaint, DSU 6.2 compared DSU 1589

procedure DSU 156

statement of available evidence (SCM 4.2), relevance DSU 171

obligation to disclose information DSU 136, 1389

as prerequisite to establishment of panel/requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) DSU 141, 145, 153, 171

exceptions

agreement within 60 day period that consultations have failed to settle dispute (DSU 4.7) DSU 172

parties’ agreement to forego consultations DSU 153, 1723, 207

TMB review proceedings (ATC 8.10) ATC 91

omission of indication, effect DSU 208

panel’s obligation to examine absence DSU 2056

request for Article 21.5 arbitration and DSU 208

requirement to indicate whether held (DSU 6.2) distinguished DSU 153, 207

purpose/importance DSU 136, 1389

definition and clarification of dispute DSU 1445, 152

as unconditional obligation (DSU 4.2) DSU 137

“without prejudice” nature of obligation (DSU 4.6) DSU 137

offers made during consultations and DSU 168

written request (DSU 4.4) as basis DSU 146

 

consultations (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreement DSU 11689

 

consultations (SCM 4.1–4)

see also request for establishment of panel, requirements (SCM 4.4)

accelerated/expedited procedures (SCM 4.3), statement of evidence (SCM 4.2) and SCM 18890, 1924

consultations (DSU 4) compared DSU 140, 142

object and purpose

clarification and development of the facts of the situation/ mutually agreed solution (SCM 4.3) SCM 194, 1989, 202, DSU 142

withdrawal of measure SCM 234

as special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), 13.197, 17.17–21:

see also special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2), arrangements considered for classification as

“statement of available evidence” (SCM 4.2) SCM 197

accelerated proceedings and SCM 18890, 1924, 197

all facts distinguished SCM 192

“available” SCM 1989

disclosure of arguments distinguished SCM 192

DSU 4.4 distinguished SCM 197

DSU 4.7 compared DSU 171

evidence of nature as subsidy, need for SCM 197

explicit reference, relevance SCM 195

failure to submit, effect SCM 196

new evidence, right to submit, objective assessment (DSU 11) and SCM 193

ordinary meaning SCM 192, 195

request for establishment of panel (SCM 4.4) distinguished SCM 191, DSU 138

role and purpose SCM 1989

time–limits, new evidence and allegations SCM 18890, DSU 624

 

consultations (SCM 13)

“initiation of investigation” (SCM 13.1)

“in any event before” SCM 402

“initiated” (SCM 10 footnote 37) and SCM 356

invitation to consult and consultations distinguished SCM 401

 

consumption of inputs in the production process (SCM, Annex II footnote 61), difficulty of resolving issues related to SCM 6668

 

copyright and related rights (TRIPS Part II Section 1)

see also Berne Convention/TRIPS; Paris Convention (PC)/TRIPS

geographical indications: see geographical indications (TRIPS Part II Section 3) (GIs)

limitations and exceptions (TRIPS 13) TRIPS 11416

“certain special cases” TRIPS 11416

cumulative nature TRIPS 109

legitimacy/legitimate public policy and TRIPS 11416

new TRIPS rights, whether limited to TRIPS 107, 110

public performance (Berne 11)/broadcasting (Berne 11bis), applicability to TRIPS 11012

“which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work”

application to individual exclusive rights, need for TRIPS 119

criteria/test TRIPS 1201

“exploit” TRIPS 117

“normal” TRIPS 118

“which do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder”

equitable remuneration and TRIPS 118 n. 123

“interests” TRIPS 1223

“legitimate” TRIPS 123

ordinary meaning TRIPS 123

“prejudice”, criteria/test TRIPS 1246

“unreasonably” TRIPS 124

patents: see patents (TRIPS part II Section 5)

trademarks, see also trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2)

 

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d)): see export subsidy commitments (AG 9); costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

 

Council for Trade in Goods (WTO IV:5)

functions WTO 813

meetings AD 865

reporting procedures WTO 83

role and responsibility in relation to, extension of transition periods (TRIMs 5.3) TRIMs 325

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 84

subsidiary bodies (WTO IV:6)

committees as at 31 December 2004 WTO 93

working groups and parties as at 31 December 2011 WTO 92

 

Council for Trade in Services (WTO IV:5)

functions WTO 85

observer status

government GATS 218

international organizations GATS 218

subsidiary Council bodies GATS 218

World Health Organization GATS 219

World Tourism Organization GATS 219

reporting procedures WTO 86

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 87, 182, GATS 217

subsidiary bodies: see rules of procedure

subsidiary bodies established at 31 December 2004 (WTO IV:6) WTO 97

 

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10)

see also suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

“appropriate” SCM 22430, DSU 12889

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11) SCM 233, 2445, DSU 1260, 1283, 12923

footnote 10 and SCM 236

nullification or impairment distinguished, see also nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

proportionality (footnote 9) SCM 226, 227, 22830, 236, DSU 12901, 1698

SCM 4.10/4.11, identity of meaning SCM 231

arbitration (DSU 22.6) and (SCM 4.11)

burden of proof DSU 5856

as special or additional rules and procedures SCM 2467, DSU 224, 12412, 127980, 12823

calculation of countermeasure, possible bases/relevant factors

adverse trade effects SCM 233, 2379

amount of subsidy SCM 233

products not in competition SCM 240

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) distinguished SCM 221 n. 343, 225, 233, 2349, 238, 2534, DSU 1241, 1260, 1283

“countermeasure” SCM 2213, DSU 12867, 1694

as retaliatory act SCM 222, 223, 232, 331, 335, DSU 1287, 1693

temporary nature SCM 223, 331, DSU 1287

inducement of compliance as objective SCM 221, 224, 225, DSU 1179, 1286, 1288

State responsibility and SCM 221, 223, 227, 331, DSU 1286, 1674 n. 2617, 1694, 16967

 

countermeasures in case of failure to take measures to remove adverse effects of or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.9) SCM 33140

“adverse effects determined to exist” SCM 334

arbitrators’ mandate/task (SCM 7.10) SCM 336

“commensurate” SCM 332

“countermeasures”

as retaliatory act SCM 331, 335

SCM 4.10 and 4.11 compared SCM 223, 237, 331, 33940

“degree and nature” SCM 333

inducement of compliance as objective SCM 232, 335

SCM 4.10 and DSU 22.4 compared SCM 335

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and SCM 338, DSU 24

 

countermeasures (general principles)

definition SCM 221, 2212, DSU 1286, 128691, 1694

proportionality SCM 226, 22830, 236, 253, DSU 12901, 16958

as retaliatory act SCM 222, 223, 232, 331, 335, DSU 1287, 1693

temporary nature SCM 331, DSU 1287

 

countervailing duties (AG 13 footnote 4) AG 138

 

countervailing duties (SCM Part V)

see also anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI)

calculation of countervailing duty/ “not in excess” (SCM 19.4)

“found to exist” SCM 46970

GATT VI:3 and GATT 471

nexus, need for SCM 467

ordinary meaning SCM 467

compliance with GATT VI:3 and SCM Agreement (SCM 10) GATT 451, SCM 3539, 6912

calculation of subsidies GATT 4712

“initiated” (SCM 10 footnote 37) SCM 356

domestic law as determining factor SCM 356

other SCM articles as context SCM 356

measures to which GATT VI not applicable SCM 481

permissible responses to subsidization GATT 469

continuing collection of duties imposed prior to entry into force of WTO Agreement, SCM 32.3 and SCM 595

“countervailing duty” (SCM 10 footnote 36)

“any subsidy bestowed directly or indirectly” SCM 354

“offsetting” requirement SCM 3534

double remedies and (GATT VI:5/SCM 19) GATT 455, 4801, SCM 466, DSU 1617

duration (SCM 21.1) SCM 4789

expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3), 13.464–6: see also expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3)

preconditions (SCM 19.1), standard of proof (SCM 22.1) SCM 503

public notice and explanation of determinations (SCM 22) AD 12.2.2, SCM 22.4 and SCM 22.5, close similarity SCM 504 standard of proof (SCM 22.1) SCM 503

as remedy to offset benefits of subsidies SCM 4

review of need for continued imposition (SCM 21.2) SCM 4817

in absence of request SCM 483

administrative review SCM 482

burden/standard of proof SCM 4845

conditions: see anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), assessment (AD 9.3), conditions (AD 9.3.2, AD 11.2 and SCM 21.2)

“through the effects of subsidy” (SCM 19.1)

retroactive effect of withdrawal of subsidy (SMC 4.7) and SCM 208, 462

“through the effects of the subsidies” (SCM 15.5), identity of meaning SCM 461

 

criminal procedures (TRIPS 61)

absolute nature of obligation TRIPS 267

conformity with relative standard, benchmark TRIPS 274

evidence and procedure TRIPS 266

limitations on obligation TRIPS 2689

minimum international standard requirement TRIPS 265

obligation to make remedies available (TRIPS 41.1) TRIPS 264

“on a commercial scale” TRIPS 269, 2714

burden of proof TRIPS 273

de minimis (TRIPS 60) compared TRIPS 274

“trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy” TRIPS 2704

 

cross-referencing, role AD 790, 797, SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

 

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2)

1.8, 2.314, 3.26, 17.1306: see also international law/ “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

in absence of specific provision SCM 6945

AD 17.6(ii) AD 927, 92834

customary international law other than customary rules of interpretation DSU 579, 1597, GPA 32 n. 45

DSU 3.2 GATT 80, SPS 8, AD 249 n. 349, 927, 931

error (VCLT) DSU 1670

GATT XXIII:1(b)/GPA GATT 991

general rule of interpretation (VCLT 31) as DSU 545, 1499, 1535, 15378

international law concepts not relevant to DSU dispute settlement DSU 1320

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) and. DSU 1665 n. 2604

non-retroactivity (VCLT 28) DSU 59, 1521, 1526, 1601

persistent objector rule DSU 1595 n. 2468, 1740 n. 2732

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II) AG 26

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX) GATS 177, 199

SG 5.1 SG 227

supplementary means of interpretation (VCLT 32) as DSU 55, 1629

treaty application and treaty interpretation distinguished DSU 1580

 

customs duties

conversion of measures to: see market access, measures required to be converted into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2 and footnote 1)

“ordinary customs duties” (GATT II(1)(b)/AG 4.2) GATT 1435, 174, AG 425, DSU 1660

 

customs duties and other charges (AIR 2)

binding of duties on repairs (AIR 2.1.3) AIR 11

elimination of customs duties and other charges on repairs (AIR 2.1.2), interpretative note AIR 10

 

customs unions (GATT XXIV:5(a))

see also RTAs (GATT XXIV:5)

as defence or exception (“shall not prevent”) GATT 10034

burden of proof GATT 1035

dependence on existence of customs union GATT 1004

on formation of customs union (GATT XXIV:5 chapeau) GATT 10034

extension of WTO right prior to formation to other

constituent members GATT 1008

“would be prevented unless” requirement GATT 1004, 1052, SG 645

trade-restrictiveness test GATT 101113

definition (GATT XXIV:8(a))

internal trade arrangements (“substantially all trade”) (GATT XXIV:8(a)(i)) GATT 10303

GATT practice GATT 1033

jurisdiction (panel) to determine compatibility with GATT XXIV requirements GATT 1041

trade with third countries (“substantially the same”) (GATT XXIV:8(a)(ii)) GATT 10347

GATT practice GATT 1037

GATT practice GATT 996, 1006, 1014

GATT XXIV:5 chapeau, relationship with GATT 10035

“general incidence” of duties and GATT 1009

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4) DSU 246

ordinary meaning (SG 2.1 footnote) SG 64

“other regulations of commerce”, GATT 1994 Understanding on Article XXIV GATT 1010

safeguard measures (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 10556

right to exclude members of customs union from SG 67

territorial scope of treaties (VCLT 29) and DSU 1529

 

Customs Valuation Agreement (VAL)

compliance obligation (SGS) PSI 1415

developing countries, delayed application and reservations WTO 262

dispute settlement: see consultation and dispute settlement (VAL 19)

disputes under VAL 65

GATT practice GATT 498, VAL 78

implementation proposals VAL 11

reservations (VAL 21/Protocol) WTO 2979, VAL 73

 

Customs Valuation Committee

adoption of practice of Tokyo Round Committee on Information on Technical Assistance VAL 67

adoption of Tokyo Round Committee decisions (12 May 1995) VAL 10, 22

correction of French text of Ad note to VAL 2 and 3 VAL 22

interpretations of VAL 8.1(b)(iv) VAL 44, 45

annual reports VAL 76

establishment WTO 93

observer status VAL 62

PSI Agreement monitoring VAL 64, PSI 3, 29

rules of procedure (1995) WTO 94, VAL 63

 

customs value determination (VAL)

additions to price actually paid/payable (VAL 8)

“development” (VAL 8.1(b)(iv)) VAL 46

interest charges (VAL 8.1) VAL 44

“undertaken” (VAL 8.1(b)(iv)) VAL 45

carrier media bearing software for data processing equipment (VAL 1) VAL 13

confidential information (VAL 10) VAL 47

“customs valuation”

customs control distinguished VAL 1

ordinary/dictionary meaning VAL 12

deductible items (VAL 5.1(a)) VAL 348

documented link to GAQ sale VAL 35

provincial taxes VAL 37

sales allowances VAL 36

transportation costs VAL 38

deductive valuation method (VAL 7.1/VAL 5.1) VAL 308

consultation requirement VAL 323

explanation of how customs value determined (VAL 16)

ex post facto explanations VAL 7

form and timing VAL 557

obligation to explain grounds (VAL 1.2(a)) distinguished VAL 58

scope VAL 524

GAQ, definition VAL 35

national legislation (VAL 22)

Checklist of Issues VAL 75

notification procedures VAL 74

“reasonable means” (VAL 7) VAL 2843

“cannot be determined” (VAL 7.1) VAL 29

minimum customs values, exclusion (VAL 7(2))

developing countries’ right to suspend (Annex III, para.2) VAL 41

indicative prices VAL 42

higher of two alternative values, exclusion (VAL 7.2(b)) VAL 40

obligation to inform importer of determined customs value and method used (VAL 7.3) VAL 43

prohibited customs valuation methods (VAL 7.2) VAL 39

sequencing nature of VAL 1–7 valuation methods VAL 89

“reasonable means” (VAL 7.1), exclusion as basis of independent sequencing claim VAL 9, 28

special and differential treatment (VAL 20/VAL Annex III), continued application of 1979 Agreement: see special and differential treatment (VAL 20/VAL Annex III)

surety for ultimate payment (VAL 13) VAL 48

payment vs guarantee VAL 23

transaction value

conditions (VAL 1.2(a)) VAL 14

examination of circumstances of sale in related-party transaction (VAL 1.2(a)) VAL 1519

balance of importer/customs authorities’ responsibilities VAL 1718

“examine” (ordinary meaning/context) VAL 1718

procedural obligations (including Interpretative Note to VAL 1.3) VAL 1516

responsibility for providing information VAL 1718

SG 3.1 investigation compared VAL 18

substantive obligations VAL 1718

obligation to communicate grounds for rejecting transaction value VAL 201

as primary basis (VAL 1) VAL 12

“transaction value” (VAL 1.1) VAL 14

truth or accuracy of customs declaration (VAL 17)

Customs Committee decision relating to (1995) VAL 59

Customs Valuation Committee mandate VAL 61

Doha decision relating to VAL 60

unit price at which goods are sold in country of importation (VAL 5), Members’ right to choose method for determining VAL 25

 

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