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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: INDEX

Index

The following index covers the body text of this book but not the text of the WTO Agreements. Disputes have been indexed under the name of the WTO Member respondent in the dispute and under the subject matter.

Index:  A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  Z

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E

EC and certain member States — Large Civil Aircraft dispute

relationships within and between agreements, AIR 6/SCM AIR 24

SCM and AIR 24

 

EC and certain member States — Large Civil Aircraft (AB), WT/DS316/AB/R

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

oral hearings (ABWP 27), multiple sessions/hearings DSU 14556

transmittal of records (ABWP 25), request to delay DSU 1455

written reponses (ABWP 28), requests for additional memoranda/submissions DSU 1466

adverse effects (SCM 5)

existence of “benefit”, need for

continuing benefit SCM 2567

non-retroactivity (VCLT 28) and SCM 256

passing the benefit through (SCM 1.1(b)) and SCM 258

business confidential information (BCI), additional procedures, AB (ABWP 16(1)) DSU 920, 1380

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 365

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a))

“anticipated” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 139

objective test SCM 140

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), availability of public information regarding measure, relevance DSU 234

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2))

constituent elements (“rules” / “relevant” / “applicable between the parties”) DSU 1604

rules applicable between WTO Members as “parties” DSU 1604

as supplementary means / “taken into account” DSU 1604

treaties concluded prior to treaty being interpreted DSU 1604

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise SCM 260, DSU 1604

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase SCM 309

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) DSU 1604

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SCM 6.3(a)-(d) SCM 279

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 271

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

continuing measures SCM 2567, DSU 15268

as general principle of international law DSU 1527, 1601

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)), amendment (WBWP 23 bis)/clarification, authorization of requested amendment DSU 1441

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “provides” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)) SCM 42

public observation of oral hearing / “passive participation” (ABWP 27(3))

AB authority to agree to DSU 1450

methodology DSU 1451

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 204, 271

Rules of Conduct (RoC)

material violations (RoC VIII) DSU 14967

“shall in no way modify the rights and obligations” (RoC II), confidentiality (RoC VII) and DSU 1484

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c))

aggregated analysis SCM 306

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)) as, genuine causal link requirement SCM 279

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

genuine causal link requirement, displacement or impediment to imports (SCM 6.3(a)) and SCM 309

genuine causal link requirement, applicability to all SCM 6.3 elements SCM 279, 282, 306

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c))

aggregated analysis SCM 306

“but for” test SCM 282, 295

counterfactual analysis SCM 296

“effect of the subsidy”, period of review SCM 302

“in the same market” SCM 319, 325

“lost sales” SCM 31920

displacement or impediment (SMC 6.3(a) and (b))

compared SCM 319

two-step analysis SCM 320

unitary vs two-step approach SCM 292

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 883

law vs fact, panel as trier of facts DSU 594

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

error of law

error not rising to a breach of DSU 11 DSU 597

failure to make objective assessment of facts distinguished DSU 595

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, discretion in assessment of evidence SCM 296

summary of requirements DSU 594

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14)

loans (SCM 14(b))

actual performance vs conditions at time loan made SCM 413

unsecured loan SCM 413

“usual investment practice” (SCM 14(a)) SCM 409

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)), “provides” SCM 42

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(b)) (conferral of benefit)

passing the benefit through

adverse effects (SCM 5) and SCM 258

changes in ownership/privatizations SCM 84

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

“certain enterprises” (SCM 2 chapeau) SCM 104

“explicitly limits” (SCM 2.1(a)) SCM 107

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 204

transmittal of records (ABWP 25), request to delay DSU 1445

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30), withdrawal of conditional appeal DSU 1469

 

EC and certain member States — Large Civil Aircraft (Panel), WT/DS316/R

adverse effects (SCM 5), relevant period SCM 259

adverse inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw (SCM Annex V) SCM 6778

arguendo assumptions, estoppel and DSU 663

bilateral agreements, status, EC–US Agreement (1992) DSU 8

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 365

composition of panel (DSU 8), determination by Director-General

(DSU 8.7), Deputy Director-General in place of DSU 441

consultations (DSU 4)

notification of request for (DSU 4.4)

identification of measure at issue DSU 157

“identification of specific measure” (DSU 6.2) distinguished DSU 157

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), non-retroactivity (VCLT 28) as DSU 59

DSU, applicability

bilateral agreements, EC–US Agreement (1992) DSU 4201

international agreements other than covered agreements DSU 421

DSU dispute settlement, obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1), waiver of rights, possibility of DSU 1304

estoppel

arguendo assumptions and DSU 663

as general principle of international law DSU 112

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 112, 1707

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, public statements by company executives/government officials DSU 636

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), estoppel and DSU 112, 1707

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

case-by-case approach DSU 240

identification of “measures” (DSU 4.4) distinguished DSU 157

“specific”, “attendant circumstances”, relevance DSU 240

interim review (DSU 15)

new evidence DSU 795

reconsideration of evidence, arguments and findings DSU 797

third party rights DSU 775

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 16013

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) and DSU 16013

rules applicable between WTO Members as “parties” DSU 16023

treaties concluded prior to treaty being interpreted DSU 16013

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in same agreement, DSU 4.4/DSU 4.6 (“measures” / “specific measures”) DSU 157

loan guarantees, as direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) SCM 30

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to, dispute as to existence of measure DSU 406

“practice” as, practice “as a whole” DSU 271

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

“any relevant rules of international law …” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) and DSU 1601

as general principle of international law DSU 59

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“general infrastructure” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)) SCM 45

“proportion” (SCM 2.1(c)) SCM 113

“predominant” (SCM 2.1(c)) SCM 114

provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii)), “general infrastructure”, limitations on access or use, relevance SCM 456

regional specificity (SCM 2.2), definition problems SCM 115

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 19.1/SCM 4.7 and 4.8 DSU 993

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, scrutiny by panel DSU 240

“serious prejudice”, procedures for developing information concerning (SCM Annex 5), adverse inferences from non-cooperation SCM 6778

“serious prejudice” (SCM 5(c)), aggregated analysis SCM 305

“serious prejudice” (SCM 6)

“significant price undercutting/suppression” (SCM 6.3(c)) aggregated analysis SCM 305

“significant” SCM 313, 319

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, public statements by company executives/government officials DSU 636

“objective assessment of matter before it”

adverse effects (SCM 5), doubt about relevant period and SCM 259

independent assessment, determination of “subsidized product” DSU 525

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution)

“direct transfer of funds” (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

debt forgiveness/debt-for-equity swaps SCM 26

share transfers SCM 25

potential direct transfer of funds (SCM 1.1(a)(1)), loan guarantees as SCM 30

provision of goods or services (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iii))

“general infrastructure” SCM 457

case-by-case approach SCM 46

limitations on access or use, relevance SCM 456

ordinary meaning SCM 45

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2)

de facto specificity (SCM 2.1(c))

“account be taken of” SCM 112

“disproportionately large” SCM 113

“predominant use” SCM 114

regional specificity (SCM 2.2), definition problems SCM 115

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30) DSU 1534

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue DSU 362

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6, participation in interim review process (DSU 15) DSU 775

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1), balance of rights and obligations and DSU 1304

 

EC — Approval and Marketing of Biotech Products (Panel), WT/DS291/R, WT/DS292/R, WT/DS293/R, Add.1 to Add.9, and Corr.1

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5))

consistency in application (SPS 5.5), “implementation measure” for purposes of SPS 5.5 SPS 21516, 256

measures “not more trade restrictive than required to achieve their appropriate level of … protection” (SPS 5.6), SPS measures, limitation to SPS 256

burden of proof (general rules)

allocation (general rule/exception relationship)

characterization of SPS 5.7 as autonomous right, effect SPS 324, 335

SPS 2.2 and 5.7 SPS 36

SPS 2.2 and 5.7 (including consolidation) SPS 36, 326, 327

Codex Alimentarius Commission, cooperation with, definitions, relevance to SPS measures (SPS Annex A(1)) SPS 479

consultation and dispute settlement (TBT 14), technical expert group, panel’s right to establish (TBT 14.2), individual advice, right to seek TBT 148

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), persistent objector rule DSU 1595 n. 2468, 1740 n. 2732

environment, SPS measures (Annex A(1)) and SPS 4624

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2)

international organizations and SPS 4067

need for experts, determination by panel against the wishes SPS 397

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), as general principle of international law DSU 1594

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “specific”, provided information in conjunction with introductory paragraph DSU 239

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 935, 940 n. 1479

interim review (DSU 15)

confidentiality of reports DSU 816

new evidence DSU 791

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31 (3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2))

determination of “ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 15946

general principles of law/international law as DSU 1594

good faith as DSU 1594

precautionary principle as SPS 7, DSU 1594

rules applicable between WTO Members as “parties” DSU 1595, 1602 n. 2483, 1740

rule applicable only to some WTO Members, whether DSU 1595, 1740

as supplementary means / “taken into account” DSU 1596

treaties concluded by other parties as DSU 1596, 1602 n. 2483

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty SPS 470

same or closely related phrases in same agreement

SPS 3.1/SPS 5.1 (“based on”) SPS 135

VCLT 31(2)(a)/31(2)(c)/66 (“parties”) DSU 1595

“shall be taken into account” (VCLT 31(3)) DSU 1574

“special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 1609

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 331

identification of treaty provisions DSU 31617

reference to mutually exclusive articles DSU 317

identification of treaty provisions clauses/subclauses, relevance DSU 316

which measures violate which provisions requirement DSU 320

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4), GATT III:2 and III:4 interrelationship, “less favourable treatment” requirement and GATT 3467, 415

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 245

“measures at issue” de facto vs de jure measures DSU 272

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 15

multiple complainants (DSU 9), separate panel reports (DSU 9.2), structure DSU 455

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), “no less favourable manner” (SPS Annex C(1)(a)) SPS 5756

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, terms used in SPS Annex A(1)(b) SPS 476

precautionary principle (SPS Agreement)

control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C) and SPS 570

as customary international environmental law DSU 1731

customary international law, whether SPS 7

as “rule of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) DSU 1594

scientific basis of measures, panel assessment SPS 181

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 320

provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7)

assessment period SPS 306

burden of proof, consolidation of SPS 2.2 and SPS 7 requirements SPS 327

cumulative requirements SPS 294

“insufficient” SPS 297

precautionary principle and SPS 329

provisional measure falling outwith scope of SPS 7 SPS 291

as qualified exemption/autonomous right SPS 36, 2889, 3325

burden of proof and SPS 3245, 335

review within “a reasonable period of time” SPS 317

availability of objectively sufficient evidence and SPS 320

evolution of scientific evidence subsequent to adoption of provisional measure and SPS 321

“seek to obtain additional information” for more objective assessment of risk, SPS 5.1/Annex A(4) and SPS 31112

publication or communication of processing period (Annex C(1)(b)) SPS 579

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III/SPS GATT 414

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1 SPS 46

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.7 SPS 546

SPS 3/Annex A(1)(d) SPS 205

SPS 3.1 and 3.3/SPS 2.2 and 5.7 SPS 33940

SPS 5.1/SPS 5.7 SPS 3325

SPS 5.3/Annex A(1)(d) SPS 205, 490, 491

SPS 5.5/Annex A(1)(a) SPS 21516

SPS 5.6/Annex A(1)(a) SPS 256

SPS 5.7/Annex A(4) SPS 31112

SPS 7/Annex B SPS 5501

SPS 8/Annex C(1) SPS 373, 375, 587

SPS 10.1/TBT 12.3 SPS 389, TBT 137

SPS 11/TBT 14 SPS 425

SPS/TBT 1.5 TBT 13

TBT 12.2/TBT 12.3 TBT 135

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 239, 320 n. 513

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3)

delay in completing control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C) and SPS 574

factors to be taken into account (economic) (SPS 5.3), “other damage” (Annex A(1)(d)) and SPS 205, 490

measures “appropriate to the circumstances” (SPS 5.1)

circumstances changing over time SPS 170

duty to base measures on risk assessment and SPS 172

methodology, single assessment for different SPS measures SPS 160

“sufficient scientific evidence” requirement (SPS 2.2) and

divergence of expert views, relevance SPS 136

precautionary principle and SPS 181

“taking into account risk assessment techniques” (SPS 5.1), “whether” vs “how” SPS 176

timing of assessment SPS 155

risk assessment (SPS Annex A(4)(4))

provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) and SPS 31112

types of risk (“likelihood” vs “potential”) SPS 146

“likelihood”, failure to evaluate, effect SPS 510

scientific evidence, sufficiency (SPS 5.7), burden of proof SPS 36

sovereignty, interpretation of covered agreement by reference to rules not accepted by Member as breach DSU 1595, 1740

special and differential treatment (SPS 10)

obligation to “take account of” special needs of developing countries (SPS 10.1)

burden of proof SPS 388

“take account of” SPS 387

TBT 12.3 compared SPS 389, TBT 137

special and differential treatment (TBT 12)

special account requirement

implementation of TBT (TBT 12.2) TBT 135

preparation of technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures (TBT 12.3) TBT 135

SPS 10.1 compared SPS 389, TBT 137

SPS Agreement

applicability (SPS 1.1)

measures “developed and applied in accordance with [SPS] provisions”, purpose of measure and SPS 15

“measures which may directly or indirectly affect trade” SPS 12, 256

basic rights and obligations (SPS 2), SPS 2.2 requirements SPS 21

object and purpose (preamble), prompt compliance with obligations SPS 558

TBT Agreement, applicability to (TBT 1.5) TBT 13

SPS control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C)

“any procedure to check and ensure”, applicability (Annex C(1) (b)) SPS 577

failure to observe Annex C requirements as breach of SPS 8 SPS 373, 375, 587

individual specimens, requirements relating to (Annex C(1)(e)) SPS 585

“no less favourable manner” (Annex C(1)(a)) SPS 5756

obligations (Annex C(1)(c))

completeness of documentation SPS 580

explanation of delay SPS 583

processing of deficient applications SPS 582

publication or communication of processing period SPS 579

summary SPS 578

transmission of results SPS 581

“undertake and complete” (Annex C(1)(a)) SPS 559

“without undue delay” (Annex C(1)(a))

definition SPS 5613

delay as means of avoiding risk assessment SPS 574

delay and refusal to take SPS action distinguished SPS 5712

determination SPS 5656

as good faith obligation SPS 557

legislative delays SPS 573

precautionary principle and SPS 570

prompt compliance with SPS obligations (SPS preamble) and SPS 558

prudence and precaution SPS 5689

SPS measure, definition/classification as (Annex A(1))

“directly related to food safety” SPS 500

“diseases, disease carrying organisms or disease-causing organisms” SPS 475

environmental protection measures and SPS 4624

travaux préparatoires SPS 4634

“labelling requirements”

applicability to matters other than food safety SPS 497

consistency of requirement with SPS as separate issue SPS 498

purpose SPS 499

“laws, decrees, regulations, requirements and procedures”

applicability to non-SPS measures SPS 4657

“include all relevant” SPS 494

“requirements and procedures” SPS 4956

legal form, flexibility SPS 494

legal form and nature, relevance/distinguishability SPS 452

measure to protect animal or plant life or health (Annex A(1)(a)) SPS 470

“entry, establishment or spread” SPS 472

genetically modified organisms and SPS 468

“risks arising from” SPS 471

measure to protect from “other damage” (Annex A(1)(d)) SPS 490

measure to protect human or animal life (Annex A(1)(b))

“additive”, genes as SPS 478

allergens as toxins SPS 4845

“contaminants” SPS 480

“foods, beverages or feedstuffs” SPS 477

ordinary meaning SPS 476

“toxins”

poisonous effect, relevance SPS 483

“unintentional addition to food” SPS 481

“measure to protect human life or health … from diseases carried by animals, plants or products of…” (Annex A(1)(c))

presence of allergens in the environment SPS 488

increased herbicide use associated with GMOs SPS 489

“pests” SPS 4734

“living organism”, relevance SPS 474

purpose as test SPS 452

applicability to both adoption and maintenance/application SPS 461

TBT Agreement, definitions (TBT 1.1 and Annex 1), international standards definitions and (TBT 1.1) TBT 8

technical regulations (TBT 2)

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1) TBT 15

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1), measures not qualifying as SPS measures TBT 22, 25

transparency of SPS regulations (SPS 7 and Annex B)

notification procedures, obligation to “notify changes” SPS 3567, 357, 361

notification procedures (Annex B(5)-(10)), obligation to “provide information” SPS 359

publication of regulations (Annex (B)(1)-(2)), “SPS regulations” for purpose of SPS 358

publication requirements (Annex (B)(1)-(2))

“SPS regulations” for purpose of SPS 5501

generally applicable measure concerning an SPS measure SPS 542

relationship between SPS 7 and Annex B SPS 5501

treaties

as aid to interpretation of treaty between other parties DSU 1596

options for opting out of treaty regime DSU 1595 n. 2468

 

EC — Asbestos (AB), WT/DS135/AB/R, DSR 2001:VII and DSR 2001:VIII

burden of proof (general rules), onus probandi actori incumbit GATT 9689

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2), as dynamic relationship (including possibility of latent demand) GATT 335

General Exceptions (GATT XX) (general)

evaluation of scientific evidence GATT 9003

divergence of expert views GATT 901

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health

GATT III:4 (regulatory discrimination) and GATT 385

justification

evidence of health risks, relevance GATT 385

good faith reliance on GATT 901

“necessary”

Member’s right to determine level of desired protection GATT 903

scientific data/risk assessment and GATT 9003

“preponderant” evidence GATT 901

“reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 9046, 928

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, alternative WTO-consistent measure, availability and GATT 905

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), scientific evidence, reliance on GATT 901

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

consistency with article/agreement as a whole GATT 342, 345

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 3

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise GATT 330

“like product” (GATT III:2 and III:4)

determination of “likeness”

in case of conflicting evidence GATT 336

need to take account of all the evidence GATT 331

as a relative concept (“accordion”)/case-by-case approach GATT 3423

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished GATT 32830

GATT III:1 compared/as context GATT 227, 257, 32830

GATT III:2 and III:4 interrelationship GATT 3423

consistency of interpretation GATT 342, 345

“less favourable treatment” requirement and GATT 345

relevant factors

Border Tax Adjustment, Working Party Report GATT 343

competitive relationship GATT 3325, 342, 343

evidence of health risks, relevance GATT 334

consumer preferences GATT 331, 3336, 343

health risks and GATT 334

end-uses GATT 333, 343

nature of product GATT 343

physical properties GATT 332, 334

tariff classifications GATT 343

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1)

as context for interpretation of GATT III:2–5 GATT 227, 328, 342

interpretation of GATT III as a whole and, consistency of interpretation GATT 342

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

GATT XX and GATT 385

“less favourable treatment”

grouping approach GATT 372

as requirement for violation finding GATT 345

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

first and second sentences distinguished GATT 32930

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 218

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

any measure” GATT 959

non-commercial measure GATT 964

“benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as, non-commercial measure and GATT 964

burden of proof GATT 96870

as exceptional remedy GATT 959, 960

GATT XXIII:1(a) distinguished GATT 959

GATT XXIII:1(b) distinguished GATT 959

measure in “conflict” with GATT provisions, applicability to GATT 959

concurrent application to measures falling under other provisions of GATT GATT 963

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) (DSU 26.1), remedies (DSU 26.1(b)) DSU 1353

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “product characteristics” (TBT Annex 1.1) TBT 157

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) DSU 64

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:1/GATT III as a whole GATT 218

GATT III:4/GATT XX GATT 385

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3), ascertainable and theoretical risk distinguished (SPS 5.1), quantitative threshold, relevance GATT 902

special or additional procedures (AB) (ABWP 16(1)), amicus curiae briefs DSU 1382

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of

contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 867

disagreement with the panel DSU 867

insufficient argument of novel issue DSU 867

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, discretion in assessment of evidence GATT 900

TBT Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 3

GATT objectives and TBT 3

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1)

“identifiable product or group of products” TBT 156

express identification, relevance TBT 156

mandatory compliance TBT 161

measure as a whole, need to consider TBT 165

“product characteristics” TBT 157

negative form TBT 159

ordinary meaning TBT 157

three-tier test/order of analysis (TBT 2.4) TBT 155

 

EC — Asbestos (Panel), WT/DS135/R and Add.1, DSR 2001:VII and DSR 2001:VIII

burden of proof (general rules)

exception/affirmative defence GATT 853

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) DSU 1350

onus probandi actori incumbit GATT 853

prima facie case requirement GATT 853

consultation and dispute settlement (TBT 14)

technical expert group, panel’s right to establish (TBT 14.2) TBT 147, DSU 25

DSU 13.2 compared TBT 147, DSU 25

individual advice, right to seek TBT 147

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU 1.2 and Appendix 2) and DSU 25

GATT 1947/WTO continuity, decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) (GATT acquis) GATT 407

General Exceptions (GATT XX)

burden of proof

chapeau and paras. a-j distinguished GATT 853

SPS distinguished GATT 854

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health

burden of proof GATT 853

justification, three-tier test GATT 889

“necessary”, scientific data/risk assessment and GATT 900

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), correction of factual errors and DSU 125

interim review (DSU 15), failure to inform panel of errors DSU 786

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 1–2

multiple authentic languages, English, French and Spanish versions compared GATT 4067

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

“and” / “comme” GATT 4067, DSU 1659

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) and DSU 1659 n. 2594

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1)

applicability

measures imposed at the time or point of importation (“internal measures”) (Ad Article)

imposition on like domestic product requirement GATT 407

QRs (GATT XI) distinguished GATT 4067

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“laws, regulations or requirements”

English, French, Spanish versions of Ad Article III compared GATT 4067

identity of measure, relevance GATT 407

“restrictions made effective through state-trading organizations” (Ad Articles XI, XI, XIII, XIV and XVIII) GATT 406

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

“benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as

reasonable anticipation and GATT 9813, 988

resulting from negotiations GATT 977

burden of proof DSU 1350

constituent elements GATT 966

as exceptional remedy DSU 1350

GATT XXIII:1(a) distinguished GATT 959

nullification or impairment, need for GATT 988

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)) (DSU 26.1)

burden of proof / “detailed justification” (DSU 26.1(a)) DSU 13501

remedies (DSU 26.1(b)) DSU 1353

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI)

GATT III and GATT 4067

national treatment (GATT III) and GATT 4067

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 13.2/TBT 14.2 TBT 147, DSU 25

GATT III/GATT XI GATT 4067

GATT III:4/GATT XI

scientific evidence, need for sufficient (SPS 2.2), burden of proof, GATT XX requirements distinguished GATT 854

special or additional rules and procedures (DSU1.2 and Appendix 2), “shall prevail” in case of a difference with DSU DSU 25

State trading enterprises (STEs) (GATT XVII), national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4) and GATT 406

TBT Agreement

object and purpose (preamble)

as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 12

GATT objectives and TBT 12

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1), “technical regulation” (Annex 1.1), measure as a whole, need to consider TBT 165

 

EC — Bananas III (AB), WT/DS27/AB/R, DSR 1997:II

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP)

appellant’s submission (ABWP 21), grounds for allegation of specific errors (ABWP 21:2) DSU 1432

timetable (ABWP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)), modification of date of oral hearing (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1393

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

non-discrimination (GATT XIII) and GATT 689, AG 1, 190

object and purpose (preamble), on-going reform AG 1, 190

relationship with other WTO agreements (AG 21.1), GATT XIII (non-discrimination), market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1) GATT 1689, AG 1, 36, 190

composition of delegation

legal representation/private counsel DSU 7234

Member’s right to determine DSU 723, 1732

consultations (DSU 4), joinder of third parties having “substantial trade interest” (DSU 4.11) DSU 1756, 468

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2), nullification or impairment, evidence of DSU 90

dispute settlement and enforcement (GATS XXIII), nullification and impairment (DSU 3.8) distinguished GATS 203, DSU 99

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

panel working procedures, need for DSU 236, 346, 622 n. 1015, 670

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 236, 346, 670

GATS Agreement, GATT 1994 overlap GATT 428, TRIMs 8 n. 12, GATS 28

GATT 1994, object and purpose (GATT I:1), non-discrimination GATT 25

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

“specific”, preliminary ruling on DSU 236

specificity, preliminary ruling on DSU 236, 670

import licensing procedures

neutrality in application and administration in a fair and equitable manner, need for (LA 1.3), administration in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner (GATT X:3 (a)), equivalence GATT 594

rules and procedures distinguished LIC 4

tariff quota procedures, applicability to LIC 2, 13

use of “restriction” in LIC 3.2 and 3.3, relevance LIC 2

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose, GATT XIII:2 GATT 659

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, GATT X:3(a)/LIC 1.3 GATT 594

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 323, 334, 345 n. 557, 411

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 309, 329 n. 529, 334, 345 n. 557

rectification at subsequent stages, arguments in written or other submission or statement DSU 323

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT X:3(a)/LIC 1.3 DSU 1718

licensing procedures, national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4) and GATT 359

“like product” (GATT I), “any product originating in or destined for another country”, administrative distinctions, relevance GATT 45

Lomé waiver WTO 209, GATT 114, DSU 534

market access, concessions and commitments (AG 4.1)

consistency with GATT XIII GATT 689, DSU 875

reform process and AG 1, 190

MFN treatment (GATS II)

determination of violoation, elements, aims and effects test GATT 217, GATS 38

national treatment (GATS XVII) distinguished GATS 34

“treatment no less favourable” (GATS II:1), de facto discrimination GATT 25, GATS 34

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“advantage”, allocation of tariff quotas GATT 35

de facto discrimination GATT 25

modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII), applicability of GATT I and XIII GATT 116, 139

national treatment, general principle (GATT III:1), “so as to afford protection”, GATS II and XVII distinguished GATS 34

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting”

hurricane licences GATT 378

purpose of measure, relevance GATT 359

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 323

“less favourable treatment”

discriminatory system for allocation of import licences GATT 165, 210, 398

formal differentiation in treatment, relevance GATT 378

“so as to afford protection” (GATT III:1), relevance GATT 323

national treatment, services and service suppliers (GATS XVII), determination of violoation, elements, aims and effects test GATT 217, GATS 132

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

administrative distinctions, relevance GATT 655, 659

AG 4.1 (market access) and GATT 689

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d)), GATT I:1 (“advantage”) and GATT 35

allocation to Members not having a substantial interest (GATT XIII:1) GATT 660

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau) GATT 665

finding as factual matter DSU 842

“importation … is similarly restricted” (GATT XIII:1) GATT 65960

legal basis for distinction, relevance GATT 659

object and purpose (GATT XIII:2) GATT 659

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28), in absence of different intention DSU 1522

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

claims and arguments distinguished DSU 1429 n. 2228

failure to meet, consequences DSU 1415

statement of allegation of error on issues of law/legal interpretations (ABWP 20(2)(d)), statement of grounds (ABWP 21:2) DSU 1432

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8)

adverse impact/prejudice, relevance DSU 90

GATS XXIII, (dispute settlement and enforcement), distinguished GATS 203, DSU 99100

presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 901

order of analysis, specific/general provision AD 467 n. 622

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “concessions” GATT 138

preliminary rulings on, specificity of request for panel (DSU 6.2) DSU 236, 670

preliminary rulings (procedural aspects)

timing DSU 670

working procedures, need for DSU 346

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

AG/GATT XIII AG 1, 190

AG 4.1 and 21.1/GATT XIII GATT 689, DSU 875

GATS II/GATT I:1 GATT 25

GATS/GATT GATT 428, TRIMs 8 n. 12

GATT I/GATT III:4 GATT 359, 362, 395

GATT I/GATT XIII GATT 114, 138, 164

GATT II:7/GATT XIII GATT 164, 168

GATT III:4 and XVII/GATT II:1(a) and XI GATT 398

GATT X:3(a)/LIC 1.3 GATT 594, DSU 1718, 1726

relationship with other GATT provisions GATT 551, 589

SCM 3.1(b)/TRIMs TRIMs 8

specific/general provision GATT 418

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a)), “shall administer” /applicability to substantive rule GATT 551

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

compliance, importance of

scrutiny by panel DSU 184, 186, 201, 206 n. 227

subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 323, 411, 1145 n. 1789

fruitfulness of action (DSU 3.7), determination by Member DSU 76, 84, 176

“sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 186

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

diminishment of obligations, exclusion GATT 138, 164

interpretation and clarification, Marrakesh Protocol as aid GATT 139

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII), determination DSU 842

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, independent assessment, international agreements other than the covered agreements DSU 534

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7), legal interest, relevance DSU 75, 834, 468, 17445

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 186, 201, 411

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6, “substantial interest” (DSU 10.2) DSU 468

third party rights (consultations (DSU 4.11)) DSU 1756, 468

TRIMs Agreement, as integral part of WTO Agreement TRIMs 8

waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4), exceptional nature WTO 209

 

EC — Bananas III (Panel), WT/DS27/R, DSR 1997:II

Agriculture Agreement (AG)

non-discrimination (GATT XIII) and GATT 689

relationship with other WTO agreements (AG 21.1), GATT XIII (non-discrimination), market access commitments (AG 4.1) and AG 190

consultations (DSU 4), adequacy of consultations (DSU 4.5), Panel responsibilities in relation to DSU 160

developing countries’ economic development purposes/financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2), legal significance LIC 78

disclosure of confidential information (GATS III bis) GATS 48

GATS Agreement, disclosure of confidential information (GATS III bis) GATS 48

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2) TRIMs 23

“identify”, sufficiency of, reference to instruments implementing challenged measures DSU 214

import licensing procedures

conformity with GATT principles and obligations requirement (LIC Preamble and 1.2), single undertaking principle, effect LIC 7

national treatment (GATT III:4) and GATT 359, TRIMs 6

interim review (DSU 15), third party rights DSU 480

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) LIC 7

object and purpose, GATT XIII:2 GATT 655

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose TRIMs 6

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

identification of treaty provisions DSU 3089

listing of articles without explanation, sufficiency DSU 309

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts GATT 666 n. 937

“conflict” DSU 1717

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) TRIMs 5, DSU 1717

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB

GATT/LIC and TRIMs 2 TRIMs 412, DSU 1717

LIC/TRIMs DSU 1717

Lomé waiver GATT 114, DSU 534

right of Panel to consider DSU 534

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1) GATS 910

“affecting” GATS 10

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), prospective measure, “of the same essence” DSU 383 n. 620

MFN treatment (GATS II), “like service and service supplier” (GATS II:1), wholesale transactions GATS 36

MFN treatment (GATT I:1)

“advantage”, creation of more favourable import duties GATT 33

“all rules and formalities” GATT 28

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2) DSU 446

structure DSU 451

national treatment (GATS XVII), “like service and service supplier” (GATS XVII:1), wholesale transactions GATS 128

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4)

“affecting”, licensing procedures GATT 359

“affecting their internal sale, offering for sale, purchase …”, purpose of measure, relevance GATT 359

general principle (GATT III:1) and GATT 359

TRIMs and TRIMs 6

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

adjustment of quota allocation (GATT XIII:4), new Member rights and GATT 676

administrative distinctions, relevance GATT 655, 658

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d))

GATT XIII:1/GATT XIII:2 chapeau and GATT 672

GATT XIII:4 and GATT 672, 676

“may seek agreement” GATT 670

to Members having a substantial interest GATT 666 n. 637

“importation … is similarly restricted” (GATT XIII:1) GATT 658

legal basis for distinction, relevance GATT 658

inclusion of inconsistent allocations in Schedule of Concessions, relevance GATT 169

object and purpose (GATT XIII:2) GATT 672

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“affecting” (GATS I:1) GATS 10, 73

“no less favourable treatment” (SG II:1 and XVII:1) GATS 34

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)), departure from after consultation with/agreement of parties (DSU 12.1) DSU 479

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3(a)), applicability to licensing regulations GATT 549

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I, III and X/LIC 1.2 LIC 7

GATT I/GATT XIII GATT 114

GATT III:4/TRIMs 2 TRIMs 6

GATT X:1/GATT X:3 GATT 549

GATT XIII:2(d)/GATT XIII:1 and GATT XIII:2 chapeau GATT 672

GATT XIII:2(d)/GATT XIII 4 GATT 672, 676

GATT/LIC/TRIMs 2 TRIMs 5

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 309, 411

specific provisions allegedly breached, reference to (DSU 6.2) DSU 308

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 411

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), interpretation and clarification, VCLT as applicable law GATT 169

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it”

independent assessment, international agreements other than the covered agreements DSU 534

non-disclosure of confidential information (GATS III bis) GATS 48

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7), legal interest, relevance DSU 1744

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue

elaboration/addition in first submission, relevance DSU 411, 446

elaboration/addition later than first submission DSU 446

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

agreement between the parties, relevance DSU 478

GATT practice DSU 478

opportunity to be heard at second substantive meeting DSU 479

opportunity to be heard (DSU 10.2) DSU 478

opportunity to comment on summary of own arguments DSU 485 n. 801

panel’s discretion and DSU 478

participation in interim review process (DSU 15) DSU 480, 774

presence at second substantive meeting DSU 479

submission of additional written material, exclusion DSU 479

“sufficient to present their views” (Appendix 3, para. 6) DSU 479

written submissions (DSU 10.2) DSU 478

waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4)

exceptional nature WTO 209

GATT I/GATT XIII waivers, relationship GATT 682

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 — Ecuador) (Panel), WT/DS27/RW/ECU, DSR 1999:II

Agriculture Agreement (AG), non-discrimination (GATT XIII) and GATT 656

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d)), to Members not having a substantial interest GATT 673

concessions on agricultural products and (AG 4.1 and 21.1) GATT 656

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau) GATT 667

tariff quotas, applicability of, GATT XIII:5 GATT 678

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) WTO 11

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS27/15, DSR 1998:I

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

15-month guideline DSU 1040

statutory enforcement periods DSU 1075

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 — Ecuador) (Panel), WT/DS27/15, DSR 1998:I/EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 US), WT/DS27/AB/RW/USA and Corr.1 (AB)

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions DSU 953

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII), tariff quotas, applicability of, GATT XIII:5 GATT 680

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), waiver of right to DSU 1154

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 Ecuador II)/EC Bananas III (Article 21.5 US) (AB) (WT/DS27/AB/RW2/ECU Corr.1/WT/DS27/AB/RW/USA and Corr.1)

DSB

statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect DSU 267, 28

“mutually agreed solution” (DSU 3.6), whether DSU 27

DSU dispute settlement, time-frame (DSU 12.8, 12.9, 17.5 and 20), indicative nature, DSU 21.5 distinguished DSU 711

GATT, object and purpose (GATT I:1), expansion of trade in goods and services GATT 21

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s discretionary suggestions, legal effect DSU 987

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3)(a)), waiver as WTO 211

supplementary means (VCLT 32), in case of ambiguity DSU 82

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) DSU 82

multiple panels/same parties/same dispute (DSU 9.3)

harmonization of timetables DSU 4645

panel’s discretion DSU 465

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6)

Article 21.5 compliance proceedings and DSU 801

interpretation, parties’ statements as supplementary means in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32) DSU 82

“solution” DSU 80

statements made at DSB meetings, whether DSU 27

“would be fruitful” (DSU 3.7) DSU 78

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

failure to meet

consequences DSU 1417

formal deficiencies/absence of prejudice DSU 1424

order of analysis, measures taken to comply (DSU 21.5) DSU 1120

panel reports, high quality/flexibility of panel procedures balance (DSU 12.2) DSU 465

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 3.6/DSU 22.8 DSU 81

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

“measures taken to comply”

measures close to measure taken to comply DSU 1120

order of analysis DSU 1120

waiver of right to DSU 1154

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), as WTO objective WTO 11

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22), termination as final solution DSU 28

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 481

waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4)

limited duration WTO 212

modification or addition to obligations, exclusion WTO 21011

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 — Ecuador II) (AB), WT/DS27/15, DSR 1998:I/EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 US), WT/DS27/AB/RW/USA and Corr.1 (AB)

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21)

impracticality of immediate compliance/reasonable period of time (DSU 21.3, chapeau)

burden of proof DSU 579

multilateral interpretation (WTO IX:2) as WTO 202

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, “any subsequent agreement … regarding its interpretation or application” (VCLT 31(3) (a)), waiver as DSU 15789

Lomé waiver GATT 114, 683

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination following agreement on terms of reference DSU 394

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6)

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.8) and DSU 81

“would be fruitful” (DSU 3.7) DSU 79

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII), tariff quotas, applicability of, GATT XIII:5 GATT 681

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

15-month guideline (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1040

burden of proof DSU 579

entry into force of legislative instrument, relevance DSU 1075

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 3.6/DSU 21.5 DSU 801

GATT I/GATT XIII GATT 6823, 683

waivers (WTO IX:3 and IX:4)

GATT I/GATT XIII waivers, relationship GATT 6823, 683

Lomé waiver GATT 6823

WTO Agreement, amendments (WTO X), multilateral interpretation, effect WTO 202

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 — US) (AB), WT/DS27/AB/RW/USA

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6), “would be fruitful” (DSU 3.7) DSU 87

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8)

legal interest requirement (DSU 3.7) distinguished DSU 87

presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 97

evidence of level of nullification or impairment distinguished DSU 98

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 3.7/DSU 3.8 DSU 87

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7), nullification or impairment requirement (DSU 3.8) distinguished DSU 87

 

EC — Bananas III (Article 21.5 — US) (Panel), WT/DS27/RW/USA and Corr.1

burden of proof (general rules), good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)) DSU 1509

DSB, statements by Members at DSB meetings, legal effect, “taking note” of, legal effect DSU 30

DSU dispute settlement, “contentious act” distinguished (DSU 3.10) DSU 102

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 792

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation DSU 1509

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), “from any individual or body”, parties DSU 750

interim review (DSU 15), new evidence DSU 792

standing/right to bring claim (DSU 3.7), legal interest, relevance DSU 86

 

EC — Bananas III (Ecuador) (Article 22.6 — EC), WT/DS27/ARB, DSR 1999:II

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

due process and DSU 1183, 1210

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

agreement/sector for which authorization is sought (DSU 22.3), limitation to DSU 1186

determination of “equivalence” (DSU 22.3) DSU 1217

methodology paper, request for DSU 1245

rejection of proposed level of suspension and DSU 1258

“specific”

agreement and sectors (DSU 22.3) DSU 1186

arbitrators’ margin of discretion DSU 1203

DSU 6.2 requirements, applicability DSU 1210, 1183

specific level of suspension (DSU 22.4) DSU 12656, 1185

countermeasures in case of failure to comply with panel or AB report within specified time-period (SCM 4.10), inducement of compliance as objective DSU 1178

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), arbitration (DSU 22.6) and DSU 1183, 1210

intellectual property conventions (TRIPS 2), continuing obligations under (TRIPS 2.2) TRIPS 33

relationships within and between agreements, DSU 22.3(b)/DSU 22.3(c) DSU 1204

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2)

due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 1183, 1210

suspension of concessions (DSU 22.2), applicability to DSU 1183, 1210

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 12656

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), Article 22.6 Arbitrator’s right to review DSU 1217

nature and purpose of countermeasures DSU 78

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2) DSU 1190

“specific” DSU 11856

suspension in other sectors (DSU 22.3(b))/under other agreements (DSU 22.3(c)), relationship between DSU 1204

suspension in same sector as violation as preferred option (DSU 22.3(a)) DSU 1200

“if that party considers that it is not practical or effective” (DSU 22.3(b) and (c)) DSU 12023

 

EC — Bananas III (US) (Article 22.6 — EC), WT/DS27/ARB, DSR 1999:II

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

determination of “equivalence” (DSU 22.3) DSU 1246, 12534

WTO-consistency as prior consideration DSU 12534

DSU 22.6 and DSU 22.7 compared DSU 1216

“specific”, agreement and sectors (DSU 22.3) DSU 1198

third party rights DSU 507, 510 n. 833

business confidential information (BCI)

additional procedures, refusal to accept on grounds of breach of confidentiality requirement DSU 905

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1) and DSU 905

countermeasures in case of failure to take measures to remove adverse effects of or withdraw subsidy (SCM 7.9), inducement of compliance as objective SCM 232, 335, DSU 11812

countermeasures (general principles), proportionality and DSU 1695

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1), party’s refusal to accept BCI procedures allegedly contravening rule, effect DSU 905

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), continuity of obligation throughout dispute settlement process DSU 131

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1216

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8)

agreement to DSU 1262

aggregate effects on suppliers as a whole DSU 1232

“appropriate” (GATT 1947: XXIII:2) distinguished DSU 1255, 1260

double-counting DSU 1237

“equivalent”, quantitative test DSU 1246, 1256

lost opportunities, relevance DSU 1223

national treatment provisions (GATT III) distinguished DSU 1223

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8) distinguished DSU 1223

direct or indirect benefits (DSU 3.3) DSU 1223

lost opportunities, relevance DSU 1223

nature and purpose of countermeasures DSU 1177

presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 98 n. 115, 1223

evidence of level of nullification or impairment distinguished DSU 98, 1231

suspension in same sector as violation as preferred option (DSU 22.3(a)), “sectors” DSU 1201

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1177

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “equivalent” (DSU 22.4) DSU 1246

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4), comparability of bases, need for DSU 1243

as temporary measure (DSU 22.8) DSU 1177

third party rights (Article 22.6 arbitrations) DSU 507, 510 n. 833

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1) DSU 1295

 

EC — Bed Linen dispute (WT/DS141)

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), ad hoc procedural agreements DSU 1166

“sequencing” (interrelationship between Article 21.5 and Article 22.6 arbitration, ad hoc procedural agreements), non-application of 30-day Article 22.6 deadline DSU 1166

 

EC — Bed Linen (AB), WT/DS141/AB/R, DSR 2001:V

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), timetable, modification in exceptional circumstances (ABWP 16(2)) DSU 1387, 1388

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2), sales not in the normal course of trade, exclusion AD 6970

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4), margins of dumping (AD 2.4.2) AD 113

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4)

comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2) AD 116

“comparable” AD 11819

imposition and collection of anti-dumping duties (AD 9), relevance AD 142 n. 204

non-comparable types AD 124

targeted dumping AD 142

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2)

“weighted average” (AD 2.2.2(ii))

of “actual amounts incurred and realized” AD 6970

single exporter or producer, sufficiency AD 68, 704

sales transaction not “in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.2), weighted average (AD 2.2.2(ii)) and AD 6970

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1)

product specific requirement AD 17

sampling technique and AD 201

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, multiple permissible interpretations AD 928 n. 1269

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.2.2(i)/AD 9.4(i) AD 68, 704

AD 2.4.2/AD 2.4 AD 119

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), “admits of more than one permissible interpretation” AD 928 n. 1269

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2) AD 116, 124

 

EC — Bed Linen (Panel), WT/DS141/R, DSR 2001:VI

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4)

determination of injury (AD 3), relevance to AD 202

single exporter or producer (AD 9.4(i)), sufficiency AD 703

consultations (DSU 4)

confidentiality (DSU 4.6)

disclosure of information obtained in different proceedings DSU 165

disclosure of information obtained in same proceedings DSU 154, 165

good faith and (DSU 4.3), confidential information as evidence of bad faith DSU 154, 165

determination of dumping (AD 2)

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), “margins” of dumping AD 113

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2)

freedom to choose method AD 63

reasonability test, relevance AD 73

determination of injury (AD 3)

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices having a bearing on checklist approach AD 265

grammar, relevance AD 247

“including” AD 247

“or” AD 247

consideration of each factor to be “apparent” in final determination AD 261

“domestic industry”

companies outside domestic industry, relevance AD 245, 328

domestic producers outside selected example, relevance AD 244, 328

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), “dumped imports” and AD 2001, 241, 277

developing countries (AD 15)

“anti-dumping duties” AD 862

provisional duty or security (AD 10.3) distinguished AD 862

“constructive remedy”

decision not to impose anti-dumping duties AD 857

lesser duty or price undertaking AD 858

“shall be explored” AD 85960

“domestic industry” (AD 4), “domestic producers” (AD 4.1), single domestic producer, applicability to AD 327

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1), product specific requirement, sampling technique and AD 201

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), domestic law procedure distinguished DSU 632

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), “constructive remedy”, “shall be explored” (AD 15) AD 859

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), “from any individual or body”, parties DSU 632

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AD 857

grammar, respect for

“or” AD 247

semi-colons AD 247

use of plural form, relevance AD 327, 625 n. 859, 703

ordinary meaning, “shall include” AD 247

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AD 73

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11), sufficiency of evidence (AD 5.2), determination of sufficiency (AD 5.3), “examine” AD 372

preparatory work (VCLT 32), AD 3.4 AD 247

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2)

explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance AD 435

explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance/sufficiency AD 8334, SCM 504

relationships within and between agreements

AD 1/AD 15 AD 862, 863

AD 2.2.2(i)/AD 9.4(i) AD 703

AD 3.4/AD 12.2 AD 842

AD 9.1/AD 15 AD 857

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), as two-stage test

retroactivity (provisional measures and anti-dumping duties) (AD 10), definitive duty higher than provisional duty, payment/recalculation (AD 10.3) AD 862

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6)

“facts made available” (AD 17.5(ii))

documents created for purposes of dispute AD 908

evidence before authority at time of determination, limitation to AD 916

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, obligation to examine and evaluate all the evidence available to it DSU 632

“zeroing” (AD 9.3/GATT VI:2), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), non-comparable types AD 124

 

EC — Bed Linen (Article 21.5 — India) (AB), WT/DS141/AB/RW, DSR 2003:III and DSR 2003:IV

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), determination of injury (AD 3), relevance to AD 202

determination of injury (AD 3), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 2034, 212

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6), timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4), “relevant”, panel’s obligation to assure itself of validity of “information”

AD 915

legal status of adopted AB reports (DSU 17.14), as final resolution of dispute DSU 901

legal status of panel reports

as final resolution of dispute DSU 826, 901, 1130, 1138

unappealed finding in adopted report DSU 826, 901, 1130, 11389

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), “measures taken to comply” (DSU 21.5) and DSU 1127

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33)

“ordinary meaning” (VCLT 31(1)) and DSU 1661

presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33) DSU 1661

precedent, distinguishability of cases and AD 779

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), impairment of benefits by measures taken by another Member (DSU 3.3), arbitration (DSU 21.5) and DSU 1136

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3/AD 6.10 AD 204

AD 3/AD 9.4 AD 202

AD 6.10/AD 9.4 AD 204

DSU 6.2/DSU 21.5 DSU 1127

DSU 16.4, 19.1, 21.1, 21.3, 21.5 and 22.1 DSU 990

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

competence of DSU 21.5 (compliance) panel

determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations DSU 1102

deviation from original panel report DSU 1105 n. 1709

DSU 6.2 procedures, applicability

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2) DSU 1127

similarity DSU 1107

“matter” DSU 1107

“measures taken to comply” DSU 1111

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings, limitation to DSU 1144

limitation to DSU 1111, 1131

measure taken “to comply” DSU 111112

measure subject of original dispute distinguished DSU 1102, 1107, 111112

measures that could have been raised in original proceedings DSU 11445

new measures DSU 11423

parties’ assessment, relevance DSU 1122

unappealed finding and DSU 826, 1115, 1130, 11389

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) and DSU 1136

relitigation of original dispute, exclusion DSU 11335

sampling (AD 6.10), “objective examination” obligation (AD 3.1) and AD 2034, 212

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), law vs fact, panel as trier of facts DSU 608

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), de novo review, exclusion AD 915 standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

error of law, application of burden of proof rules DSU 617

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence

discretion in assessment of evidence DSU 608, 617

egregious error, need for DSU 608, 617

sunset review (AD 11.3) (including “likelihood” test), determination of likelihood, volume analysis, analysis from previous review as part “measure taken to comply” AD 779

 

EC — Bed Linen (Article 21.5 — India) (Panel), WT/DS141/RW, DSR 2003:III and DSR 2003:IV

determination of dumping (AD 2), “normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1), calculation of administrative, selling and general costs and profits (AD 2.2.2), “weighted average” (AD 2.2.2(ii)), by value or volume AD 712

determination of injury (AD 3)

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

adequacy of evaluation AD 264

all relevant economic factors and indices, need to examine, eventual relevance of factor, relevance AD 252

consideration as a whole AD 252

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 330

relationships within and between agreements, AD 3/AD 9.4 AD 202

review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5)

due process and DSU 1143

“measures taken to comply”

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings, limitation to DSU 1143

measures that could have been raised in original proceedings DSU 1143

unappealed finding and DSU 1115

 

EC — Chicken Cuts (AB), WT/DS269/AB/R, WT/DS286/AB/R and Corr.1, DSR 2005:XIX

“agricultural products” (AG 2/Annex 1), Harmonized System, applicability to Annex 1 AG 25, DSU 1115

arguendo assumptions, “even assuming” DSU 1573

domestic law, interpretation of covered agreements, relevance to, as supplementary means (VCLT 32) DSU 1655 n. 2588, 1655 n. 2589

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS)

as aid to interpretation of covered agreements/as context for purposes of GATT 124, 1256

as basis for AG Annex 1 AG 25

Explanatory and Chapter Notes, status GATT 126

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “identify”, sufficiency of, “among others” DSU 227

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)) DSU 1593

Harmonized System as DSU 1593

interpretation of covered agreements, responsibility for authoritative (WTO IX:2)

“authoritative” interpretation DSU 1586

“subsequent practice” (VCLT 31(3)(b)) and DSU 1586

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

“any subsequent practice … which establishes the agreement of the parties regarding its interpretation” (VCLT 31(3)(b)) DSU 15836

“authoritative” interpretation (WTO IX:2) and DSU 1586

“common practice” DSU 15845

failure to protest a customs classification practice, effect GATT 130

“circumstances of conclusion” (VCLT 32) GATT 131

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 15634

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS) as GATT 124, 1256

dictionaries GATT 124

object and purpose, caution in use of DSU 156873, 15723

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

“circumstances of its conclusion” DSU 164752

attitudes of parties DSU 1647 n. 2568

date of conclusion distinguished DSU 1649

objective test DSU 1648

official publication of act or instrument DSU 1650

prevailing international situation DSU 1652

domestic law DSU 1655 n. 2588, 1655 n. 2589

non-exhaustive nature of VCLT 32 list DSU 16367

direct link with treaty, relevance DSU 16478

“recourse may be had” DSU 1631

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise DSU 1539

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 401

measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to DSU 255, 257, 37981

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), “satisfactory settlement” (DSU 3.4 and 3.7) DSU 73

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

interpretation and clarification

“circumstances of conclusion” (VCLT 32) GATT 131

ordinary meaning in context GATT 124

subsequent practice (VCLT 31(3)(b)) GATT 130

tariff classification for purposes of GATT 122

 

EC — Chicken Cuts (Panel), WT/DS269/R

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), obligation to exercise jurisdiction/should make an objective assessment DSU 536

DSU dispute settlement

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

“recourse to, and abide by” DSU 1311

referral to the WCO DSU 1311

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS), “instrument in connection … with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(b)), whether DSU 1566

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 1557

“any instrument … made by one or more of the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(b)), Harmonized System, whether DSU 1566

object and purpose GATT 119

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 119, DSU 1573

“special meaning” (VCLT 31(4)) DSU 1608

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2)

in absence of objection DSU 447

structure DSU 454

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II:1(a)/GATT II:1(b) GATT 133

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

consistency of measure with GATT II:1(a) and (b) GATT 11819

test GATT 118

interpretation and clarification, GATT II:1(a) and (b), interrelationship GATT 133

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 119

tariff classification for purposes of GATT 122

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2) GATT 119

World Customs Organization (WCO), right to refer dispute to (DSU 23.1) DSU 1311

 

EC — Chicken Cuts (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS269/13, WT/DS286/15

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), “reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1070

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

administrative measures as means of implementation, relevance DSU 1050

arbitrator’s limited mandate

determination of reasonable period DSU 1023

limitation on Member’s choice of methods DSU 10278

burden of proof DSU 1088

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1070

obligation to commence implementation in good time DSU 1046

pending decision of international organization and DSU 1083

 

EC — Citrus Products (Panel), L/5776

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), as non-violation claim “benefit” (GATT XXIII:1(b)) GATT 974 n. 1381

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), “benefit”, MFN treatment GATT 974 n. 1381

 

EC — Commercial Vessels (Panel), WT/DS301/R, DSR 2005:XV

bilateral agreements, status, EC–Korea Agreed Minutes DSU 7

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2) DSU 1306

international law concepts not relevant to DSU dispute settlement DSU 1320, 1675

DSU, applicability, bilateral agreements, EC — Korea Agreed Minutes DSU 7

DSU dispute settlement

obligation to have recourse to (DSU 23.1)

as “exclusive jurisdiction” clause DSU 1306

“recourse to, and abide by” DSU 1306

in “seeking redress of WTO violation” DSU 13067

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 934

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), relevance when unsupported by the text DSU 1320, 1674, 1675

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), other articles in same agreement, DSU 23.1 as context for DSU 23.2 DSU 1307

dictionaries GATT 32

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), “all matters referred to GATT III:2 and III:4” GATT 32

national treatment, payment of subsidies exclusively to domestic producers as exception (GATT III:8(b)), targeted aid scheme, applicability to GATT 3912

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “have recourse to” / “seek redress” (DSU 23.1) DSU 1306

preliminary rulings on, terms of reference DSU 418

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 23.1/DSU 23.2 DSU 1307

DSU 23.1/VCLT 60 DSU 1320, 1674

GATT /GATT III:8(b) GATT 396

remedies as means of restoring balance of WTO rights and obligations DSU 1306

specific action against dumping (AD 18.1) or subsidy (SCM 32.1) in accordance with GATT VI as interpreted by AD/SCM Agreement

“against” SCM 587

“specific” SCM 587

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), preliminary ruling on DSU 418

unilateral action by Member, prohibition (DSU 23.1)

balance of rights and obligations and DSU 1306

examples of excluded actions (DSU 23.2) DSU 1307

 

EC — Computer Equipment (AB), WT/DS62/AB/R, WT/DS67/AB/R WT/DS68/AB/R, DSR 1998:V

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 226, 377, 674

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

identification of product, need for DSU 226, 229

“practice” as measure DSU 273

interpretation of covered agreements, preparatory work (VCLT 32), unilateral customs classification practice DSU 1646

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2))

customs classification practice DSU 16456

prior practice, need for consistency DSU 1646

legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions) GATT 132

tariff concessions in Member’s schedule and GATT 1213, 162, DSU 1542

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 121, DSU 1356, 1542

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

“circumstances of its conclusion” DSU 16446

unilateral classification practice DSU 16456, 1649 n. 2574

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), application of tariffs as DSU 273

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), “benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as, reasonable anticipation and GATT 984

preparatory work (VCLT 32) DSU 1644

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself considerations DSU 209, 377

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

as integral part of GATT 1994 (GATT II:7) GATT 163

interpretation and clarification

applicable rules, VCLT GATT 121

legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions) GATT 121, 132, 162

“treatment contemplated” (GATT II:5) and GATT 162, DSU 1542

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)) GATT 121

security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), as WTO objective WTO 9, DSU 43

 

EC — Computer Equipment (Panel), WT/DS62/R, WT/DS67/R, WT/DS68/R, DSR 1998:V

good faith interpretation of treaty (VCLT 31(1)), legitimate expectations, relevance DSU 1542

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

legitimate expectations (including GATT II:5 provisions) GATT 132

supplementary means (VCLT 32), “circumstances of its conclusion”, unilateral classification practice DSU 1649 n. 2574

 

EC — Countervailing Measures on DRAM Chips (Panel), WT/DS299/R, DSR 2005:XVIII

arguendo assumptions, judicial economy and DSU 6467

composition of panel (DSU 8), replacement of panellist DSU 442

data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 438

determination of injury (AD 3)

merged companies and SCM 432

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2), merged companies and SCM 432

determination of injury (SCM 15)

“all relevant economic factors” (SCM 15.4) SCM 4401

causal relationship between subsidized imports and injury to domestic injury (SCM 15.5 and footnote 47), non-attribution of other factors SCM 4478

data collection period (SCM 15.1/15.2) SCM 438

price effect determination (SCM 15.2)

obligation to examine other factors, whether SCM 437

price undercutting, methodology for determining SCM 436

significant increase in subsidized imports (SCM 15.2) SCM 431

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

resort to “facts available” (SCM 12.7)

purpose of provision SCM 400

secondary source information SCM 389

judicial economy, arguendo assumptions and DSU 6467

subsidy, calculation in terms of benefit to recipient (SCM 14), “usual investment practice” (SCM 14(a)) SCM 408

subsidy, definition (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) (financial contribution), “direct transfer of funds” (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) debt forgiveness/debt-for-equity swaps SCM 27 n. 43

subsidy, specificity (SCM 2), de facto specificity (SCM 2.1(c)), relevant factors SCM 110

 

EC — Export Subsidies on Sugar dispute (WT/DS283/17), review of implementation of DSB rulings (DSU 21.5), ad hoc procedural agreements, non-prejudice to parties’ other rights DSU 1175

 

EC — Export Subsidies on Sugar (AB), WT/DS265/AB/R, WT/DS266/AB/R, WT/DS283/AB/R, DSR 2005:XIII

agricultural concessions and commitments (AG 3)

export subsidies, prohibition (AG 3.3)

“budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels”, obligation to include both types in Schedule AG 33

AG 9.2(b)(iii)/9.2(b)(iv) and AG 109

as integral part of GATT 1994 (AG 3.1) AG 26

Schedules of Commitments and AG 3, interrelationship AG 278

Agriculture Agreement (AG), relationship with other WTO agreements (AG 21.1), conflict, priority in case of AG 191

arguendo assumptions

estoppel and DSU 663

“even assuming” DSU 111, 1706

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, Schedules of Commitments (AG) AG 26

estoppel

arguendo assumptions and DSU 663

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 11011, 17056

export competition commitments (AG 8), compliance with AG and scheduled commitments AG 191

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

continuity of obligation throughout dispute settlement process DSU 130

estoppel and DSU 11011, 17056

as limitation on right to bring action under DSU DSU 109

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), “identify”, sufficiency of, reference to an EC Regulation or to the “EC regime” DSU 218

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including

VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty AG 191

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, AG 9.1/AG 9.2(b)(iii)/AG 9.2(b)(iv) AG 109

judicial economy, “positive solution to dispute” requirement (DSU 3.7)/false judicial economy and DSU 654

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts, possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, AG/GATT AG 191, DSU 125, 1725

mutually agreed/acceptable solution to matters raised formally (DSU 3.6), “would be fruitful” (DSU 3.7) DSU 1705

nullification or impairment (DSU 3.8), presumption in case of inconsistency with covered agreement DSU 96

panel reports, adoption of report/notice of appeal (DSU 16.4), extension of deadline procedural agreement on, parties’ procedural agreement on DSU 830

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)), “payments”, cross-subsidization as/as cross-subsidization AG 91

relationships within and between agreements

AG /Schedules of Commitments AG 278

as integral part of GATT 1994, AG 3.1 AG 26

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II), interpretation and clarification, customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law AG 26

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 8745

new arguments DSU 857

 

EC — Export Subsidies on Sugar (Australia) (Panel)

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), unregulated situations and DSU 471, 472

preliminary rulings on, third party rights DSU 471

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3)

notification of intention to participate in (DSU 10.2), timeliness DSU 4714

preliminary ruling on DSU 471

 

EC — Export Subsidies on Sugar (Thailand/Australia/Brazil) (Panel), WT/DS265/R, WT/DS266/R, WT/DS283/R

amicus curiae briefs, confidential information obligations (DSU 18.2) DSU 917

burden of proof, on WTO law DSU 576

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27), amicus curiae briefs and DSU 917

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), confidentiality and DSU 127

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 964

preliminary rulings on, confidentiality issues DSU 917

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6 DSU 484

 

EC — Export Subsidies on Sugar (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS265/33,  WT/DS266/33, WT/DS283/14, 28 October 2005, DSR 2005:XXIII

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings) DSU 1013

“reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1069

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

arbitrator’s limited mandate, limitation on Member’s choice of methods DSU 1026

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1061

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1013

previous decisions, relevance DSU 1090

shortest period possible within Member’s normal legislative process DSU 1033

 

EC — Fasteners (China) (AB), WT/DS397/AB/R

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), preparatory work (VCLT 32), AD 6 AD 624

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

lesser duty, possibility of (AD 9.1) AD 658

“such mandatory duty shall be collected …” (AD 9.2)

“all sources” AD 667

“appropriate” amounts AD 666

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 666

mandatory nature AD 6602

NMEs and AD 660

“shall name” AD 66970

exception in case of impracticality AD 670

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion] DSU 369

confidential information (AD 6.5)

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis”, distinguishability AD 500

“good cause shown” AD 5024

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis” distinction, relevance AD 500

“shown” AD 506

non-confidential summaries (AD 6.5.1), as balance between protection of confidentiality and need to ensure opportunity to defend interests AD 514

“parties to an investigation” AD 501

determination of dumping (AD 2)

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“fair comparison”, “shall indicate … what information is necessary” AD 106

NMEs and (Note 2 Ad Article VI:1) GATT 4567, AD 1556, 166

non-market economies (NMEs) and (Note 2 Ad Article VI:1) AD 166

“like product” (AD 2.1) AD 22

“like product” (AD 2.6) AD 22, 153

determination of injury (AD 3), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1), sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 199

“domestic industry” (AD 4)

“a major proportion of the total domestic production” (AD 4.1) AD 3314

“domestic producers” (AD 4.1), exclusion of producers not making themselves known before deadline AD 334

due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6), balance of interests considerations AD 514

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

due process as underlying principle, balance of interests considerations AD 514

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2), late provision of information and AD 466, 487

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1)

request for substantial amount of information as essential feature AD 43940

time–limits for reply AD 43940

time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1), reply to questionnaires AD 43940

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4)

“information used by the authorities” AD 475

price comparison (AD 2.4) and AD 4767

NMEs and AD 477, 624

“relevant” AD 4757

interested parties’ perspective as determinant AD 474

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11)

methodology, authorities’ discretion AD 334

support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4), “a major proportion” (AD 4.1) distinguished AD 382

judicial economy

definition DSU 643

limitation of concept to panel’s handling of claims DSU 643

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) and GATT 97

multiple appeals (notice of other appeal (ABWP 23)), “statement of the nature of the other appeal” (ABWP 23(2)(c)(ii)) DSU 1438

non-market economies (NMEs)

collection of mandatory duties (AD 9.2) AD 660

disclosure (AD 6.10) and AD 477, 624

Note 2 Ad Article VI:1 and GATT 4567, AD 1556, 166

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 624

separate legal entities, treatment of AD 62831

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d)), failure to meet, consequences DSU 1418

relationships within and between agreements

AD 3.1/AD 4 AD 309

AD 4.1/AD 5.4 AD 382

AD 6.10/AD 9.2 AD 62831, 666

GATT I/GATT VI GATT 97, 11112

sampling (AD 6.10)

“appropriate amount” (AD 9, 2) and AD 666

as deviation from general rule AD 624

injury investigations (AD 3.2), use in AD 198

NMEs and AD 624

“objective examination” obligation (AD 3.1) and AD 198

separate legal entities, treatment of AD 62831

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), timeliness of objections DSU 369

 

EC — Fasteners (China) (Panel), WT/DS397/R and Corr.1

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), “such mandatory duty shall be collected …” (AD 9.2), “all sources”, AD 9.2 and SCM 18 distinguished AD 668

burden of proof, prima facie case requirement AD 96

confidential information (AD 6.5)

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis”, distinguishability AD 4989

disclosure “without specific permission” AD 508

“good cause shown”

“by nature confidential” / “provided on a confidential basis” distinction, relevance AD 499

“shown” AD 5067

publicly available information AD 499

consultations (DSU 4), notification of request for (DSU 4.4), legal basis of the complaint, DSU 6.2 compared DSU 159

determination of dumping (AD 2)

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“due allowance”, “differences which affect price comparability” AD 967

“fair comparison”, “shall indicate … what information is necessary” AD 105

determination of injury (AD 3)

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“dumped imports” and, margin of dumping not greater than de minimis AD 206

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 199, 207

significant increase in dumped imports analysis (AD 3.2) AD 233

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2)

margin of dumping greater than de minimis, limitation to AD 206

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 233

price undercutting/suppression analysis AD 233

“domestic industry” (AD 4)

“a major proportion of the total domestic production” (AD 4.1) AD 335

“domestic producers” (AD 4.1), authorities’ discretion in choosing AD 335

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2), late provision of information and AD 4656

time–limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1), “ample opportunity” (chapeau) and AD 430

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4)

analysis of constituent elements AD 486

information already available to parties distinguished AD 479

opportunity for defence (AD 6.2) and AD 4656, 487

request, need for AD 48990

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

prompt presentation of clear claim DSU 123

prompt settlement of disputes (DSU 3) and DSU 115

tactics and manoeuvres to avoid, exclusion DSU 115

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in same agreement, DSU 4.4/DSU 6.2 (“legal basis of the complaint”) DSU 159

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM11), support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4), determination of standing and AD 381

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), request for consultations (DSU 4.4) compared DSU 159

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 260

price undertakings (AD 8)/undertakings (SCM 18), AD 8 and SCM 18 distinguished AD 655, SCM 458

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 115

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2), explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance/sufficiency AD 837

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.1/AD 2.6 AD 153

AD 6.2/AD 6.4/AD 6.5 AD 495

AD 9.2/SCM 18 AD 668

sampling (AD 6.10), injury investigations (AD 3.2), use in AD 199, 207

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion AD 206

Working Procedures, fair, prompt and effective settlement as objective DSU 113, 123

 

EC — Hormones (AB), WT/DS26/AB/R, WT/DS48/AB/R, DSR 1998:I

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5))

consistency in application (SPS 5.5)

arbitrary or unjustifiable inconsistencies, exclusion SPS 230

comparability of different situations SPS 2245, 230

cumulative nature of obligations SPS 212

discrimination or disguised restriction of trade resulting from inconsistency SPS 212

elements required for SPS 21113

legal obligation, whether SPS 218

“arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination”, use in GATT XX, SPS 2.3 and SPS 5.5 compared SPS 2401

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, exclusion (SPS 2.3)

ALOPs (SPS 5.5) and SPS 612, 240

comparison of ALOPs as basis for panel review SPS 230

arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions resulting in discrimination or disguised restriction on international trade (SPS 5.5), disguised restriction on international trade/warning signals SPS 238

balance of payments difficulties, developing countries’ right to take import measures (GATT XVIII:B), P, burden of proof GATT 769

burden of proof (general rules)

allocation (general rule/exception relationship), SPS 3.1 and 3.3

onus probandi actori incumbit SPS 33, DSU 541

order of analysis DSU 554

prima facie case requirement GATT 598, 769, SPS 76

explicit finding, relevance DSU 546

“prima facie” DSU 546

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) DSU 324, 326, 416

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), “existing legislation” exceptions, exclusion SPS 4489, 588

consistency in application (SPS 5.5), arbitrary or unjustifiable inconsistencies, exclusion SPS 230

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law, DSU 3.2 SPS 8

domestic law, incorporation of international SPS standard SPS 78

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

good faith evaluation of evidence and DSU 613

panel’s discretion on matters of procedure (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3) DSU 4901, 684

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 488, 508 n. 828, 665

expert evidence, multiple complainants and (DSU 9.3) DSU 48890

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2)

ad hoc rules DSU 765

“from any individual or body” SPS 4034, 426, DSU 765

group of experts, panel’s right to establish DSU 765

selection process, consultation with parties SPS 427

expert review groups, rules and procedures (DSU Appendix 4), panel’s right to establish ad hoc rules DSU 1363

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), objective assessment obligation (DSU 11) SCM 696

harmonization of SPS measures (SPS 3)

measures based on international standards (SPS 3.1)

“based on”, “conform to” distinguished SPS 712, 92

presumption of consistency with SPS/GATT (burden of proof) SPS 76, 78

measures which conform to international standards (SPS 3.2)

burden of proof SPS 823

“conform to” SPS 801, 92

incorporation into domestic law SPS 78

presumption of consistency with SPS/GATT (burden of proof) (SPS 3.2) SPS 78

measures which result in a higher level of protection (SPS 3.3)

as autonomous right SPS 8, 778, 8990, 97

limitations on SPS 90

“or as a consequence …” SPS 95

precautionary principle and SPS 91

risk assessment obligation (SPS 5) and SPS 95, 100

precautionary principle and DSU 1730

as SPS object and purpose (SPS 3.1/preamble) SPS 4, 68, 71

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), discretion not to seek DSU 754 n. 1216, 756, 757 n. 1220

international law / “relevant rules of international law” (VCLT 31(3)(c)) with particular reference to the interpretation of covered agreements (DSU 3(2)), in dubio mitius principle DSU 1713 n. 2689, 1734

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty SPS 95

in dubio mitius principle, as supplementary means of interpretation DSU 1713 n. 2689, 1734

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, SPS 3.1 (“based on”)/SPS 3.2 (“conform to”) SPS 81, 92

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) GATT 79 n. 105, SPS 1301, DSU 1550

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), arguments distinguished DSU 324, 326

margin of discretion [in accordance with due process] (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3) DSU 4901, 6656

evaluation of evidence (DSU 11) and DSU 610 n. 991

expert evidence (DSU 13.2) and DSU 601, 613

unregulated situations and DSU 508 n. 828, 510

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

harmonization of panels and timetables (DSU 9.3), joint meeting with experts DSU 488

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3) and, multiple complainants (DSU 9) and, joint meeting with experts DSU 488

third party participation in panel proceedings initiated by another complainant DSU 48890, 684

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28)

in absence of different intention DSU 1523

continuing measures DSU 1523

harmonization of measures (SPS 3.3) and SPS 91

precautionary principle (SPS Agreement) SPS 8, DSU 1730

SPS preamble SPS 8, DSU 1730

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“based on” SPS 712, 81, 134

“potential” SPS 519

precautionary principle (SPS Agreement)

as customary international environmental law SPS 6, DSU 1730

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) and SPS 8, DSU 1730

sufficient scientific evidence (SPS 5.7) and SPS 8, 23, 37, 3289, DSU 1730

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3), multiple complainants (DSU 9.3) and DSU 488

provisional adoption of SPS measures in case of insufficiency of scientific evidence (SPS 5.7), precautionary principle and SPS 3289

relationships within and between agreements

SPS 1.1/SPS 5.1 and 5.5 SPS 14

SPS 2/SPS 3 and 5 SPS 65, 141

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1 SPS 44

SPS 2.3/SPS 5.5 SPS 612

SPS 3 as a whole SPS 78

SPS 3.1/SPS 3.3 SPS 54

SPS 3.3/SPS 5.1 SPS 100

SPS 5.2/Annex C SPS 195, 376

SPS/WTO XVI:4 SPS 4489, 588

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3)

ascertainable and theoretical risk distinguished (SPS 5.1), quantitative threshold, relevance SPS 161

assessment prepared other than by Member concerned, acceptability (SPS 5.1 and Annex A(4)) SPS 151

balance of SPS interests and (SPS 5.1) SPS 141

explanation for measure allegedly in breach of SPS 5, burden of proof, relevance SPS 341

factors to be taken into account including “available scientific evidence” (SPS 2) SPS 143

non-scientific/non-quantifiable factors SPS 143, 193

open vs closed list SPS 192, 193, 195, 1967

potential abuse SPS 1967

potential abuse of controlled substance SPS 1967

risks arising from difficulties of control, inspection and approval/assessment (SPS 8 and Annex C) SPS 195, 376

measures “appropriate to the circumstances” (SPS 5.1)

direct causality between substance and possible adverse health effects SPS 134

flexibility SPS 166

measures based on, need for (SPS 5.1) SPS 177

rational relationship between measure and risk, need for SPS 137

case-by-case approach SPS 139

methodology

assessment for each substance, need for SPS 158

as scientific process SPS 193

risk management distinguished (SPS 5.1 and Annex A(4)) SPS 1312, 521

“scientific justification” (SPS 3.3) and SPS 95, 141

“sufficient scientific evidence” requirement (SPS 2.2) and SPS 137

as complementary obligations SPS 44

divergence of expert views, relevance SPS 137

“taking into account risk assessment techniques” (SPS 5.1) SPS 134

failure to refer to scientific studies in domestic legislation/regulations, relevance SPS 134, 177

risk assessment (SPS Annex A(4)(4))

quantification, relevance (including SPS 5.2 requirements) SPS 193

specificity of assessment, need for SPS 156, 507, 514

types of risk (“likelihood” vs “potential”)

“potential” SPS 519

“probable” SPS 148, 519

scientific evidence, need for sufficient (SPS 2.2)

as part of trade/protection of human life and health balance SPS 24

precautionary principle and SPS 8, 23, 3289, DSU 1730

rational and objective relationship between SPS measure and scientific evidence, need for SPS 137

ad hoc determination SPS 137

standard of review, prudence/precautionary principle SPS 37

sovereignty, in dubio mitius principle and DSU 1713 n. 2689, 1734

special or additional procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1)

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2) DSU 765

margin of discretion DSU 684

SPS Agreement

applicability (SPS 1.1), measures in existence before entry into force of SPS agreement (SPS 14) SPS 14, 4489, TBT 50, DSU 1523

as balance between promotion of international trade and protection of human, animal or plant life or health SPS 24, 141

object and purpose (preamble), precautionary principle and SPS 8, DSU 1730

SPS control, inspection and approval procedures (SPS 8 and Annex C), risk assessment (SPS 5.2) and SPS 195, 376

SPS measures, international standards, guidelines and recommendations, possibility of non-compliance or nonexistence (SPS 5.8), burden of proof SPS 78

standard/powers of Review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

applicability to covered agreements other than AD Agreement AD 1015

completion of the legal analysis in case of, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts DSU 860

issues of law/legal interpretations, alleged failure of panel to make objective assessment (DSU 11) DSU 613

law vs fact

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations DSU 843

panel as trier of facts DSU 601, 846

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11)

completion of the legal analysis DSU 324

error of law, equation of “based on” and “conform to” SPS 92, 134

“objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence

de novo review, exclusion

discretion in selection of evidence to refer to explicitly DSU 598, 601

egregious error, need for DSU 598, 613

obligation to examine and evaluate all the evidence available to it DSU 598

discretion in assessment of evidence DSU 601

“objective assessment of matter before it”, good faith obligation SCM 421 n. 696

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

as definition of jurisdiction/legal claims at issue, specific legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation of jurisdiction to DSU 324

objections, requirements, opportunity to cure procedural defect and DSU 488

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and DSU 684

panel’s discretion and DSU 684

participation in proceedings initiated by another complainant (DSU 9) DSU 48890

 

EC — Hormones (Panels) (Canada/US), WT/DS26/R, WT/DS48/R, DSR 1998:I

ALOPs (SPS 5.4–5.6 and Annex A(5))

consistency in application (SPS 5.5)

comparability of different situations SPS 225

comparable situations SPS 226

discrimination or disguised restriction of trade resulting from inconsistency SPS 212

minimization of negative trade effects obligation (SPS 5.4) and SPS 206

“arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination”, use in GATT XX, SPS 2.3 and SPS 5.5 compared SPS 240

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, exclusion (SPS 2.3), ALOPs and (SPS 5.4–6) SPS 210

arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions resulting in discrimination or disguised restriction on international trade (SPS 5.5), arbitrary or unjustifiable distinctions SPS 50

expert review groups, rules and procedures (DSU Appendix 4), appointment procedures DSU 1363

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, SPS provisions distinguished SPS 5

harmonization of SPS measures (SPS 3)

measures based on international standards (SPS 3.1)

“based on” SPS 71

“where they exist”, standard/powers of review (panel) SPS 73

as SPS object and purpose (SPS 3.1/preamble) SPS 5

judicial economy, prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose SPS 592

lex specialis/presumption against treaty conflicts

“conflict” DSU 1719

General Interpretative Note (WTO Annex 1A) DSU 1719

possibilities of conflict considered by panel/AB, GATT/SPS DSU 1719

precautionary principle (SPS Agreement), customary international law, whether SPS 6

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III/SPS GATT 414, SPS 592

GATT XX(b)/SPS SPS 5, 590

relationships within and between agreements, GATT XI/SPS SPS 592

SPS 2.2 and 2.3/SPS 5.4–5.6 SPS 50, 210, 285

SPS 2.2/SPS 5.1 SPS 44

SPS 3 as a whole SPS 77

SPS/TBT 1.5 TBT 12

risk assessment, need for (SPS 5.1–5.3)

methodology, assessment for each substance, need for SPS 158

“sufficient scientific evidence” requirement (SPS 2.2) and, divergence of expert views, relevance SPS 404

“taking into account risk assessment techniques” (SPS 5.1), failure to refer to scientific studies in domestic legislation/regulations, relevance SPS 134

timing of assessment (SPS 5.1) SPS 152

risk assessment (SPS Annex A(4)(4)), types of risk (“likelihood” vs “potential”), “probable” SPS 516, 519

SPS Agreement

applicability (SPS 1.1)

GATT XX(b), relevance SPS 594

measures in existence before entry into force of SPS agreement (SPS 14) SPS 448

“measures which may directly or indirectly affect trade” SPS 11

phytosanitary measure affecting international trade SPS 9, 594

as balance between promotion of international trade and protection of human, animal or plant life or health, “only to the extent necessary”, trade-restrictive measures, exclusion (SPS 5.4–6) and SPS 50

GATT XX(b), relationship SPS 5

measure to protect human or animal life (Annex A(1)(b)) SPS 10

TBT Agreement, applicability to (TBT 1.5) TBT 12

SPS measures, international standards, guidelines and recommendations, possibility of non-compliance or non-existence (SPS 5.8), burden of proof SPS 341

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), risk assessment (SPS Agreement), exclusion SPS 122

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6

multiple complainants (DSU 9) and DSU 684

panel’s discretion and DSU 684

presence at second substantive meeting DSU 684

 

EC — Hormones (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS26/15, WT/DS48/13, DSR 1998:V

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, dictionaries DSU 1029

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), prompt compliance with DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21) and DSU 1029

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

15-month guideline DSU 1038

15-month guideline (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1029

arbitrator’s limited mandate, determination of reasonable period DSU 1020

burden of proof DSU 580, 1085

shortest period possible within Member’s normal legislative process DSU 1029

time to conduct studies/risk assessment, exclusion DSU 1079

 

EC — Hormones (Canada) (Article 22.6 — EC), WT/DS48/ARB, DSR 1999:III

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

determination of “equivalence” (DSU 22.3)

methodology paper, request for DSU 1244

“nature of concession”, exclusion (DSU 22.7) DSU 1187, 1247, 1256

“specific”

agreement and sectors (DSU 22.3) DSU 1187

product list DSU 1187

specific level of suspension (DSU 22.4) DSU 1247, 1187

third party rights DSU 508, 510 n. 833

burden of proof (general rules), suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) DSU 583

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 508

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4) DSU 1264

burden of proof DSU 583

“equivalent” (DSU 22.3), quantitative test DSU 12478, 1256

reasoned estimates, need for DSU 1227

third party rights (Article 22.6 arbitrations) DSU 508, 510 n. 833

 

EC — Hormones (US) (Article 22.6 — EC), WT/DS26/ARB, DSR 1999:III

arbitration (DSU 22.6)

scope of review/arbitrators’ mandate/task (DSU 22.7)

determination of “equivalence” (DSU 22.3)

methodology paper, request for DSU 1244

“nature of concession”, exclusion (DSU 22.7) DSU 1187, 1247, 1256

rejection of proposed level of suspension and DSU 1257

“specific”

agreement and sectors (DSU 22.3) DSU 1184, 1187

DSU 3 provisions and DSU 1209

specific level of suspension (DSU 22.4) DSU 1247, 1184, 1187

third party rights DSU 508

bilateral agreements, status DSU 419

burden of proof (general rules), suspension of concessions (DSU 22.4) DSU 583

DSU, applicability, bilateral agreements DSU 419

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), prejudice to party, relevance DSU 508

sovereignty, Members as sovereign entities DSU 583

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30), Schedules DSU 1532

suspension of concessions for non-implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 22)

agreement to DSU 1263

level equivalent to nullification or impairment (DSU 22.4) DSU 1184

burden of proof DSU 583

“carousel” type suspension DSU 1189

“equivalent” (DSU 22.3), quantitative test DSU 1247

responsibility of Member to ensure DSU 1189

“or other obligations”, authorization to suspend (DSU 22.2), “specific” DSU 1184

third party rights (Article 22.6 arbitrations) DSU 508

 

EC — IT Products (Panel), WT/DS375/R, WT/DS376/R, WT/DS377/R

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), Schedule of concessions and WTO 287

“effecting an advance …” (GATT X:2), “effecting” GATT 544

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 794

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS), interpretation of covered agreements (VCLT) and, as supplementary means (VCLT 32) DSU 1638

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), identification of product, need for DSU 231, 232 n. 324

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), measure terminated in course of proceedings/no longer in existence DSU 936

Information Technology Agreement (Singapore)

“instrument … in connection with the conclusion of the threat” (VCLT 31(2)(b)), whether DSU 1567

“products” /product coverage GATT 199

interim review (DSU 15), new evidence DSU 794

interpretation and clarification, GATT II:1(a) and (b), interrelationship GATT 133

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2))

“any instrument … made by one or more of the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty” (VCLT 31(2)(b)), Information Technology Agreement, whether DSU 1567

Harmonized System of Customs Classification (HS) as GATT 127

evolutionary approach/intertemporal law DSU 16212

supplementary means (VCLT 32), non-exhaustive nature of VCLT 32 list DSU 1638

legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4)

claims “as such” vs claims “as applied”, relevance of distinction DSU 338

GATT II:1 and GATT 120

normative value as determining factor DSU 284

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 381

prospective measure DSU 262

multiple complainants (DSU 9)

separate panel reports (DSU 9.2), structure DSU 456

single panel “whenever feasible” (DSU 9.1), third party rights DSU 515

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “instrument” (VCLT 31(2)(b)) DSU 1567 n. 2413

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

“effecting an advance …” (GATT X:2) GATT 5446

“effecting” GATT 545

enforcement prior to publication as violation of GATT X:2 GATT 547

“uniform practice” GATT 545

“laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1) GATT 513

“made effective” GATT 5267

“pertaining to the classification” GATT 529

measure of general application (GATT X:2) GATT 543

measures of general application (GATT X:1) GATT 523

“shall be published” (GATT X:1) GATT 531

“in such a manner as to enable …” GATT 535

“promptly” GATT 5334

relationships within and between agreements, GATT II:1(a)/GATT II:1(b) GATT 133

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4) WTO 287

consistency of measure with GATT II:1(a) and (b), legislation as such, right to challenge (WTO XVI:4) GATT 120

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b)), “in excess of” GATT 147

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), “measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), amended measures, amendment following establishment of panel DSU 403

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3)

notification of intention to participate in (DSU 10.2), timeliness DSU 473

single panel proceedings (DSU 9.1) DSU 515

treaties, “treaty” (VCLT 31(1)) DSU 1541

 

EC — Poultry (AB), WT/DS69/AB/R, DSR 1998:V

AB procedures (DSU 17.9 and ABWP), written reponses (ABWP 28) DSU 1460

bilateral agreements, status, Oilseeds Agreement (EC–Brazil) DSU 6

developing countries’ economic development purposes/financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2), legal significance LIC 9

DSU, applicability, bilateral agreements, Oilseeds Agreement (EC–Brazil) DSU 6

GATT 1947/WTO continuity

decisions, procedures and customary practices under GATT 1947 (WTO XVI:1) (GATT acquis), joint decisions, limitation to WTO 276

“decisions” (WTO XVI:1/GATT 1(b)(iv)), classification as, bilateral agreements WTO 276

import licensing procedures

conformity with GATT principles and obligations requirement (LIC Preamble and 1.2) LIC 1

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3), transparency and predictability requirement (LIC 3.5(a)) LIC 25

over-quota trade, applicability LIC 1, 3

trade-restrictive or trade-distortive effects, avoidance (LIC 1.2 and 3.2) LIC 3, 9

transparency and predictability requirement (LIC Preamble) LIC 1

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3) and LIC 25

interpretation of covered agreements, phrases, “c.i.f. import price” (AG 5.1(b)) AG 6872

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

customary international trade usage as applicable law AG 69

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat/effet utile) AG 71

“ordinary meaning … in their context … in light of object and purpose” (VCLT 31(1)) AG 70

preamble of agreement under consideration LIC 1

supplementary means (VCLT 32)

Oilseeds Agreement as DSU 1635

other agreements between parties DSU 1635

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AG 6970

modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII), applicability of GATT I and XIII GATT 116, 139, 687

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d))

inclusion of non-Member imports GATT 666, 674

“may seek agreement” GATT 671

compensation negotiations (GATT XVIII) and GATT 687, 1074

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau), inclusion of non-Member imports in calculation of tariff quota shares GATT 666

Oilseeds Agreement (EC–Brazil), status as covered agreement WTO 276, GATT 10, 671, DSU 6

Schedule LXXX and DSU 1671

as supplementary means for interpreting a covered agreement (VCLT 32) DSU 1635

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “c.i.f. import price” (AG 5.1(b)) AG 70

preparatory work (VCLT 32), Oilseeds Agreement as DSU 1635

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

administration in a uniform, impartial and reasonable manner (GATT X:3(a)), equivalence, as procedural requirement GATT 510

“laws, regulations, judicial decisions and administrative rulings” (GATT X:1), “of general application” GATT 554

measures of general application (GATT X:1) GATT 510, 520

quantitative restrictions, elimination (GATT XI), “prohibition or restriction” (GATT XI:1), causal link, need for GATT 604 n. 859

relationships within and between agreements, GATT I and XIII/GATT XXVIII GATT 116, 687

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

interpretation and clarification, Marrakesh Protocol and GATT 139

non-discrimination under GATT I and GATT 116, 139

special safeguards (AG 5)

calculation method (AG 5.5), right to choose AG 6970, 73

c.i.f. import price (AG 5(1)(b)) AG 6872

customary international trade usage AG 69

effectiveness principle AG 71

possibility of alternative method (AG 5.5) AG 73

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6)

completion of the legal analysis in case of, disagreement with panel DSU 861

findings or developed legal interpretations, limitation to (DSU 13) DSU 897

legal findings or developed interpretations, limitation to (DSU 17.13) DSU 897

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, all arguments DSU 643

successive treaties relating to the same subject matter (VCLT 30), Schedules DSU 1531

treaties, termination by subsequent treaty (VCLT 59) DSU 1671

 

EC — Poultry (Panel), WT/DS69/R, DSR 1998:V

developing countries’ economic development purposes/financial and trade needs (LIC 1.2), legal significance LIC 9

import licensing procedures

conformity with GATT principles and obligations requirement (LIC Preamble and 1.2) LIC 3

export performance, relevance (LIC 3.5(j)) AG 47, LIC 1213, 301

neutrality in application and administration in a fair and equitable manner (LIC 1.3) LIC 1213

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3)

newcomer provision (LIC 3.5(i)) LIC 29

small quantities, allocation in respect of (LIC 3.5(i)) LIC 29

rules and procedures distinguished LIC 13

speculation in licences (LIC 3.5(h) and (j)) LIC 27

trade-restrictive or trade-distortive effects, avoidance (LIC 1.2 and 3.2) LIC 9

transparency and predictability requirement (LIC Preamble)

frequent changes to rules and LIC 15

non-automatic import licensing (LIC 3) and LIC 23

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

terminated measures

termination before agreement on terms of reference DSU 247

continuing relevance DSU 389

modification of schedules (GATT XXVIII), applicability of GATT I and XIII GATT 10734

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII)

allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d)), inclusion of non-Member imports GATT 666, 674

distribution of trade as close as possible to expected shares in absence of restrictions (GATT XIII:2 chapeau) GATT 666

inclusion of non-Member imports in calculation of tariff quota shares GATT 666

notification obligations (LIC 1.4) LIC 14

notification obligations and procedures, LIC 1.4(a) LIC 14

relationships within and between agreements, GATT I and XIII/GATT XXVIII GATT 116, 687

 

EC — Salmon (Norway) (Panel), WT/DS337/R and Corr.1, DSR 2008:I

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9)

“appropriate” amounts (AD 9.2) AD 6645

sampling (AD 6.10) and AD 664

calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4)

avoidance of prejudice to non-investigated exporters AD 699

“margins” AD 702

margins established under circumstances referred to in AD 6.8, exclusion AD 702

non-cooperating companies and AD 705

prospective normal value ceiling (AD 9.4(ii)) AD 7212

determination of dumping (AD 2)

allocation of costs, need for explanation, allocation of costs, need for explanation AD 55

calculation of normal value, factors to be taken into account (AD 2.1), AD 3.6 and AD 40

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2)

actual data “pertaining to”, low-volume sales data AD 60

“any other reasonable method” (AD 2.2.2(iii)) AD 76

cost data (AD 2.2.1.1)

non-recurring costs (NRCs) AD 525

“reasonable period of time” AD 46

“like product” (AD 2.1) TBT 22, AD 201

“like product” (AD 2.6) AD 21, 152

sales not “in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.2)

low-volume sales and AD 612

sales below cost, method for determining whether (AD 2.2.1) AD 435

determination of injury (AD 3)

country by country analysis/cumulative assessment of volume and prices (AD 3.3), “positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 21213

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), examination of other known factors (AD 3.5), “known” to investigating authority AD 281

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

significant increase in dumped imports analysis (AD 3.2) AD 232

volume and price effects AD 21213

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2)

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1) AD 232

price undercutting/suppression analysis AD 232

“domestic industry” (AD 4)

“a major proportion of the total domestic production” (AD 4.1) AD 330

AD 5.4 and AD 380

“dumping” / “margin of dumping” (AD 2.1), “for purposes of this agreement” /identity of meaning throughout AD Agreement AD 242

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (AD 6.9), change of legal basis, relevance AD 619

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

Annex II, obligations under AD 5389

“information appropriately submitted …” (Annex II para. 3) AD 562

unjustified resort to available facts AD 5545

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4)

“relevant” AD 4723

“timely” AD 473

investigation of dumping (AD 5)/subsidy (SCM 11), support for (AD 5.4/SCM 11.4), major proportion of the domestic industry AD 380

judicial economy

avoidance of de novo review and AD 330

prior decision on another point rendering discussion otiose AD 831

legal status of panel reports, “distinguishing” previous cases and DSU 825

precedent, “distinguishing” previous cases and DSU 825

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2)

change of legal basis, obligation to inform interested parties (AD 12.2) AD 619

judicial economy in case of substantive inconsistency with AD Agreement AD 831

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.1/AD 2.6 AD 21, 158

AD 2.1/AD 3.6 AD 40

AD 2.1/AD 9.3 AD 696

AD 6.8/AD 9.4 AD 702

AD 6.10/AD 9.2 AD 664

AD 17.6/DSU 11 AD 937

sampling (AD 6.10)

“appropriate amount” (AD 9, 2) and AD 664

“dumped imports” finding, applicability, choice of sample AD 6334

“largest percentage” AD 6367

“objective examination” obligation (AD 3.1) and AD 21213

volume and price effects determination AD 21213

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), interpretation of relevant provisions of AD (AD 17.6(ii)), DSU 11 compared AD 937

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts”, de novo review, exclusion AD 330

 

EC — Sardines (AB), WT/DS231/AB/R, DSR 2002:VIII

abuse of rights/abus de droit, withdrawal of notice of appeal (WP 30) as DSU 833

amicus curiae briefs

AB and

right to accept (DSU 17.9) DSU 473

discretionary nature/case-by-case approach DSU 743

prompt and satisfactory settlement of dispute (DSU 3.3) and, prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) DSU 743

burden of proof (general rules)

allocation (general rule/exception relationship)

SPS 3.1 and 3.3 TBT 52

TBT 2.4 TBT 52

difficulty in collecting information and DSU 571

onus probandi actori incumbit TBT 523

TBT 2.4

Codex Alimentarius Commission, cooperation with, panel’s decision not to seek information from (DSU 13.1) DSU 754

conformity of laws, regulations and administrative procedures with WTO obligations, obligation to ensure (WTO XVI:4), technical regulations (TBT 2.4) and TBT 50

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties, timing of submission of evidence (DS 12) and DSU 626

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 626, 789, 793

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10) DSU 833

as limitation on right to bring action under DSU, withdrawal of appeal DSU 107

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26))

burden of proof/presumption of DSU 1506

as fundamental rule of treaty interpretation DSU 1506

IGOs, panel’s right to seek information from DSU 754

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2), discretion not to seek DSU 754, 757

interim review (DSU 15)

new evidence DSU 626, 789, 793

“precise aspects of the interim report”, limitation to (DSU 15.2) DSU 626

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex 1), ISO/IEC Guide/Annex 1, relationship TBT 1523

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex)

applicability to pre-existing measures TBT 5, 4951

“as a basis for” TBT 625

burden of proof, onus probandi actori incumbit TBT 523

explanation of justification on request (TBT 2.5)

“applying” TBT 73

as mandatory obligation TBT 73

“fulfilment of legitimate objective” (TBT 2.2)

“ineffective or inappropriate means” (including distinction between) TBT 678

“legitimate objective”, qualification as (including TBT 2.2 provisions) TBT 70

“international standard”, consensus, relevance TBT 568

practice of international standard-setting bodies distinguished TBT 58

“relevant” TBT 5960

“relevant parts of them” TBT 65

“shall use them” TBT 61

TBT objectives (TBT preamble) and TBT 5

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 5

same or closely related phrases in different agreements, omission of term (TBT Annex 1) TBT 58, 153

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to, evidence of measure and measure distinguished DSU 256 n. 378

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) DSU 1525

notice of appeal, requirements (ABWP 20(2)(d))

amendment (WBWP 23 bis)/clarification, demonstration of need for DSU 1439, 1474

failure to meet, preliminary ruling on DSU 1421

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “relevant” (TBT 2.4) TBT 59

panel reports, adoption of report/notice of appeal (DSU 16.4), circumvention of deadline DSU 833

preliminary rulings on, compliance with ABWP 20(2)(d) DSU 1421

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3)

ABWP and DSU 1367

amicus curiae briefs and DSU 743

public observation of oral hearing / “passive participation” (ABWP 27(3)) DSU 743

relationships within and between agreements

TBT 2.2/TBT 2.4 TBT 70

TBT 2.4/TBT 2.8 TBT 78 n. 115

TBT 2.4/WTO XVI:4 TBT 50

TBT Agreement, object and purpose (preamble), as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 5

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

functional approach to (TBT 2.8), “wherever appropriate”, burden of proof TBT 78

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1)

mandatory compliance TBT 162

“product characteristics” TBT 158

negative form TBT 160

third party participants (AB proceedings) (ABWP 24/ABWP 27), as legal right DSU 743

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), notification of intention to participate in (DSU 10.2), right to submit amicus curiae in absence of DSU 474

withdrawal of appeal (ABWP 30)

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 107

as means of amending an appeal (ABWP 23 bis changes) DSU 1439, 1474

Working Procedures, fair, prompt and effective settlement as objective DSU 743, 1367, 1474

 

EC — Sardines (Panel), WT/DS231/R, DSR 2002:VIII

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 976

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4)

applicability to pre-existing measures

participation in preparation of international standards (TBT 2.6) and TBT 74

unilateral measures under MFA (TBT 2.5) and TBT 72

explanation of justification on request (TBT 2.5), “applying” TBT 73

obligation to participate in preparation of (TBT 2.6) TBT 74

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 4

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements, “relevant” (TBT 2.4) TBT 59

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/TBT GATT 418

TBT 2.2/TBT 2.4 TBT 70

TBT 2.4/TBT 2.5 TBT 72

TBT Agreement

GATT III:4 and GATT 418

object and purpose (preamble)

as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 4

avoidance of unnecessary obstacles to trade/regulatory autonomy TBT 4, 23

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

changing circumstances and (TBT 2.3) TBT 47

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1), mandatory compliance TBT 162

 

EC — Selected Customs Matters (AB), WT/DS315/AB/R, DSR 2006:IX

consultations (DSU 4), evidence obtained during, admissibility in panel proceedings DSU 630

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, evidence obtained during consultations DSU 630

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 790

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

recommendations of panel/DSB (DSU 19.2), effect DSU 353

“specific” DSU 235

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2), (DSU 6.2) and DSU 353

interim review (DSU 15), new evidence DSU 790, 793

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 322

identification of specific measure distinguished DSU 1967, 198

summary “sufficient to present the problem clearly” DSU 196, 332

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2)

amended measures, amendment after establishment of panel DSU 3801

any act or omission attributable to a Member DSU 244

“cumulatively claim” /system as a whole DSU 265, 335

“cumulatively claim” /system as a whole DSU 335

measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to DSU 2556

evidence of measure and measure distinguished DSU 256

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X), independent tribunals (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 585

relationships within and between agreements

DSU 6.2/DSU 7.1 DSU 352

DSU 6.2/DSU 19.1 DSU 353, 991

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), due process/ability to defend itself/ considerations DSU 196

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), new evidence DSU 876

standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), standard/powers of review (panel) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of the facts” /alleged disregard or distortion of the evidence, evidence obtained during consultations, admissibility DSU 630

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

“matter referred to the DSB” (DSU 7.1) DSU 352

legal basis of claim distinguished DSU 197, 198, 210

 

EC — Selected Customs Matters (Panel), WT/DS315/R GATT 1038

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes, timing of acts of administration (GATT X:3(a)), relevance GATT 561

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time–limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence, evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 790

GATT, responsibility of Member for compliance by regional and local governments and authorities (GATT XXIV:12) GATT 1038

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

inclusion of reference to WTO obligation DSU 185, 219

substance of WTO obligation being violated, relevance DSU 185, 219

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), “bring the measure into conformity with”, “measure” for purposes of DSU 966

interim review (DSU 15), new evidence DSU 790

publication and administration of trade regulations (GATT X)

due process basis GATT 580

independent tribunals (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 584

measures of general application (GATT X:1) GATT 522

due process and GATT 511

“prompt review and correction” (GATT X:3(b)) GATT 580

due process considerations GATT 580

uniform, impartial and reasonable administration (GATT X:3 (a))

burden of proof GATT 557

timing of acts of administration, relevance to admissibility as evidence GATT 561

“uniform” GATT 566

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, scrutiny by panel DSU 185

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

request for establishment of panel as basis DSU 192

title of case, relevance DSU 192

 

EC — Sugar Exports (Australia) (GATT Panel), L/4833, BISD 26S/290, “serious prejudice” (SCM 6), adverse effects on trade interests, as “serious prejudice” SCM 277

 

EC — Sugar Exports (Brazil) (GATT Panel), L/5011, BISD 27S/69, “serious prejudice” (SCM 6), adverse effects on trade interests, as “serious prejudice” SCM 277

 

EC — Tariff Preferences (AB), WT/DS246/AB/R, DSR 2004:III

burden of proof (general rules)

allocation, classification for purposes of, relevance to interpretation of agreement GATT 80

defences and exceptions, Enabling Clause, inconsistency with GATT I:1, sufficiency as basis of complaint GATT 83

on WTO law GATT 823, DSU 5745

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) DSU 574, 171011

customary international law rules of interpretation [as codified in the VCLT] as applicable law (DSU 3.2), DSU 3.2 GATT 80

developing countries (WTO Preamble)

“commensurate with” WTO 7

“positive efforts” WTO 6

Enabling Clause (EC)

burden of proof and GATT 823, DSU 5745

conformity with GSP (generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory treatment) (EC 2(a)) GATT 859

“developing countries” GATT 90

“discriminate” / “non-discriminatory” GATT 859

absence of clear qualifying criteria or standards GATT 88

“generalized” (EC 2(a) footnote 3) GATT 84

“in accordance” GATT 81

as exception to GATT I:1, “notwithstanding” (EC 1) GATT 80

as integral part of GATT 1994 GATT 12

least developed countries (EC 2(d)), EC 2(a) and GATT 91

as “positive effort” (WTO Preamble) WTO 6

preparatory work (VCLT 32), 1971 Waiver Decision GATT 84

treatment designed and … modified to respond to needs of developing countries (EC 3(c)) GATT 89, 90, 945

development, financial and trade needs, limitation to GATT 89

differential treatment, scope for GATT 945

objective standard, need for GATT 89

“positive” response GATT 89, 945

“treatment designed to facilitate and promote the trade of developing countries …” (EC 3(a)) GATT 923

identity of tariff preferences, relevance GATT 88, 92

undue burden GATT 93

GATT 1994, constituent elements (GATT 1994, Art. 1), “other decisions of the Contracting Parties to GATT 1947” (Art. 1(b)(iv)), Enabling Clause, whether GATT 12

GATT, object and purpose (GATT I:1), raising standards of living, 2.20a, GATT, object and purpose (GATT I:1), raising standards of living GATT 20

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10), development of arguments at earliest possible stage DSU 121

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

classification as exception, relevance GATT 81

classification for purpose of allocating burden of proof, relevance GATT 80

dictionaries GATT 84

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of GATT 86

preamble of agreement under consideration, as evidence of object and purpose GATT 86

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), presumption of identity of meaning (VCLT 33(3)) DSU 1663

order of analysis

non-discrimination (GATT I:1)/Enabling Clause GATT 81

specific/general provision GATT 81

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“generalized” (EC 2(a) footnote 3) GATT 84

“non-discriminatory” (EC 2(a) footnote 3) GATT 859

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)) DSU 409

preparatory work (VCLT 32), Enabling Clause GATT 84

relationships within and between agreements

GATT I:1/Enabling Clause GATT 81

SPS 3.1/SPS 3.3 SPS 54

 

EC — Tariff Preferences (Panel), WT/DS246/R, DSR 2004:III

arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination, GATT XX measure as (GATT XX chapeau), objective criteria, need for GATT 869

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27)

obligation to respect/ensure respect for DSU 928

private counsel/advisers not part of delegation and, joint representation DSU 928, 1490

third party rights and, joint representation DSU 928, 1490

due process (application of trade measures), objective criteria, need for GATT 869

General Exceptions (GATT XX(b)), measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health

justification

objective criteria, need for GATT 869

policy objective GATT 8923

three-tier test GATT 890

“necessary”, for achievement of legitimate objective GATT 8956

three-tier test GATT 890

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 978

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

context (VCLT 31(2)), “any agreement relating to … made in connection with the conclusion…” (VCLT 31(2)(a)) DSU 1562

dictionaries GATT 52

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), “accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product”, “unconditionally” GATT 52

panel procedures (DSU 12 and Appendix 3 (WP)) DSU 668

private counsel, inclusion in delegation, Rules of Conduct (RoC), non-applicability DSU 148990

relationships within and between agreements, GATT I:1/Enabling Clause GATT 80

third party enhanced rights/rights beyond those indicated in DSU 10.2, DSU 10.3 and Appendix 3, para. 6, extension to all parties DSU 482

 

EC — Tariff Preferences (Article 21.3(c)), WT/DS246/14, DSR 2004:IX

developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), developing countries (DSU 21.2) (implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings), “reasonable period” (DSU 21.3(c)) DSU 1011

“reasonable period” for implementation of recommendations and rulings (Article 21.3(c) arbitrations)

burden of proof DSU 1087

contentiousness/political sensitivity, relevance DSU 1060

coordination with other changes, relevance DSU 1081

developing countries and (DSU 21.2) DSU 1011

institutional changes and DSU 1076

 

EC — Trademarks and Geographical Indications (Australia) (Panel), WT/DS290/R, DSR 2005:X

geographical indications (TRIPS Part II Section 3) (GIs)

conflicts with later trademarks (TRIPS 22.3/23.2) TRIPS 158

“date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement” (TRIPS 24(3)) TRIPS 173

“geographical indications” (TRIPS 22.1) TRIPS 1512

generic terms, exclusion TRIPS 152

“in implementing this section” (TRIPS 24.3) TRIPS 171

“in respect of” (TRIPS 22.1) TRIPS 150

protected rights (TRIPS 16), potential for conflict TRIPS 159

registration of trademark (eligibility/validity)/right to use (TRIPS 24.5)

as exception to GI protection TRIPS 174

“in this section” TRIPS 175

relationship TRIPS 174

intellectual property rights, acquisition and maintenance including inter partes procedures, inter partes proceedings (TRIPS Part IV) and enforcement (TRIPS Part III) distinguished TRIPS 278

intellectual property rights, enforcement (TRIPS Part III)

“intellectual property rights” (TRIPS 41/TRIPS 1.2) TRIPS 216

inter partes proceedings (TRIPS Part IV) distinguished TRIPS 278

“international standards … as a basis for technical regulation” (TBT 2.4/Annex 1)

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TBT 6

technical regulations distinguished TBT 6

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise TRIPS 64

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions, same or closely related phrases in same agreement, TRIPS 17/TRIPS 30 (“exception”) TRIPS 136

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of treaty provisions DSU 315

legitimate interests, TRIPS 17 TRIPS 13943

marks of origin, absence from TBT Agreement TBT 11, 166

marks of origin (GATT IX), TBT 2.1 (MFN treatment) and TBT 11, 166

MFN treatment (TBT 2.1), marks of origin and TBT 11, 166

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

“treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1)

difference of treatment between EU and non-EU members TRIPS 467, 49, 51

GATT III:4 compared TRIPS 50, 624

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/TBT 2.1 TBT 18

GATT IX/TBT TBT 11

TRIPS 16.1/TRIPS 22.2 TRIPS 159

TBT Agreement, object and purpose (preamble), as aid to interpreting TBT Agreement TBT 6

technical regulations and standards, conformity with (TBT 5–9), assessment procedures and technical regulation distinguished TBT 168

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1)

conformity assessment procedures distinguished TBT 168

measures not qualifying as SPS measures TBT 24

rights conferred (TRIPS 16)

“exclusive right”, as negative right TRIPS 1313, 1367

“likelihood of confusion” TRIPS 134

“technical regulation” (Annex 1.1)

“fair use of descriptive terms” TRIPS 138

mandatory compliance TBT 163

trademarks, limitation to TRIPS 136

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2)

“limited exceptions” (TRIPS 17) DSU 1367

autonomy of provision/limited correlation with other TRIPS articles TRIPS 145

burden of proof TRIPS 144

“legitimate interests”

legal rights distinguished TRIPS 139

“of third parties” TRIPS 1423

“take account of” TRIPS 1401

TRIPS Agreement, principles (TRIPS 8), “anything not prohibited” /negative right approach TRIPS 81, 1313

wines and spirits, additional protection for GIs (TRIPS 23)

protected rights (TRIPS 16), potential for conflict TRIPS 164

protected rights (TRIPS 16), resolution of conflict (TRIPS 23.2) TRIPS 165

WTO Agreement, as single undertaking (WTO II:2), coexistence WTO 26

 

EC — Trademarks and Geographical Indications (US) (Panel), WT/DS174/R, DSR 2005:VIII

European Union, “separate customs territory” (TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1), whether TRIPS 17

explanatory notes (“country”, “countries” and “national”), interpretation and application WTO 306

General Exceptions (GATT XX(d)), measures necessary to secure compliance with GATT-consistent measure, constituent elements, “reasonably available” alternative WTO-consistent measure GATT 929

geographical indications (TRIPS Part II Section 3) (GIs)

burden/standard of proof TRIPS 154

conflicts with later trademarks (TRIPS 22.3/23.2) TRIPS 158

“date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement” (TRIPS 24(3)) TRIPS 173

“geographical indications” (TRIPS 22.1) TRIPS 151

“in implementing this section” (TRIPS 24.3) TRIPS 171

“interested parties” (TRIPS 22.2) TRIPS 4, 1556

national treatment (TRIPS 1.3) and TRIPS 4, 155

“legal means” (TRIPS 22.2), freedom to choose method of implementation (TRIPS 1.1 and) TRIPS 910

“Members” (TRIPS 22.2) TRIPS 1534

protected rights (TRIPS 16), potential for conflict TRIPS 159

“protection of GIs that existed in that Member” (TRIPS 24.3) TRIPS 172

registration of trademark (eligibility/validity)/right to use (TRIPS 24.5)

as exception to GI protection TRIPS 174

“in this section” TRIPS 175

relationship TRIPS 174

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2)

“identify”, sufficiency of, reference to an EC Regulation or to the “EC regime” DSU 2378

ordinary meaning DSU 237

“specific”, preliminary ruling on DSU 2378

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 965

intellectual property conventions (TRIPS 2), national treatment (PC 2(1))/TRIPS 3.1 TRIPS 212

intellectual property rights, availability, scope and use (TRIPS Part II)

“intellectual property” (TRIPS 1.2) TRIPS 1314

as private rights (preamble) TRIPS 4

intellectual property rights, enforcement (TRIPS Part III), “intellectual property rights” (TRIPS 41/TRIPS 1.2) TRIPS 216

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

footnotes to treaty as aid/integral part of treaty TRIPS 17, 58, 68, 74

object and purpose, preamble as evidence of TRIPS 1

preamble of agreement under consideration as aid TRIPS 23

same or closely related phrases in different agreements

GATT XXVI:5/TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1 (“separate customs territory”) TRIPS 17

GATT XXXIII/TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1 (“separate customs territory”) TRIPS 17

same or closely related phrases in same agreement, TRIPS 17/TRIPS 30 (“exception”) TRIPS 136

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) TRIPS 3

as a whole/holistic/harmonious exercise TRIPS 62, 64, 159

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1), identification of treaty provisions, linked multiple obligations DSU 315

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), measure in existence at time of establishment of panel, limitation to, measures not in existence as evidence DSU 405

MFN treatment (GATT I:1), “all matters referred to GATT III:2 and III:4” GATT 31

MFN treatment (TRIPS 4)

“any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity” (chapeau) TRIPS 69

applicability to intellectual property rights addressed in TRIPS (TRIPS 3.1 footnote 3) TRIPS 68

“immediately and unconditionally” (chapeau) TRIPS 701

“nationals of any other country” (chapeau), burden/standard of proof TRIPS 72

multiple authentic languages, interpretation (VCLT 33), English, French and Spanish texts compared (TBT 2.9.2) TRIPS 17

national treatment (TRIPS 3)

applicability to intellectual property rights addressed in TRIPS (TRIPS 3.1 footnote 3) TRIPS 58, 74

“each member” /delegation of responsibility (TRIPS 3.1) TRIPS 34

“interested parties” (TRIPS 22.2) and TRIPS 4, 155

“nationals of other members” (TRIPS 1.3/3.1) TRIPS 35

“own nationals” (TRIPS 3.1), determination in accordance with international law TRIPS 523

“treatment no less favourable” (TRIPS 3.1)

difference of treatment between EU and non-EU members TRIPS 445, 47, 49, 51, 54

“enjoy the advantages” (PC 2(1)) distinguished TRIPS 212

GATT III:4 compared TRIPS 50

“nationals”, determination in accordance with international law TRIPS 15, 523

ordinary meaning of terms used in covered agreements

“identify the specific measure at issue” (DSU 6.2) DSU 237

terms used in, TRIPS 24.5 TRIPS 174

Paris Convention (PC)/TRIPS

assimilation to nationals “of the Union” (PC 3) TRIPS 24

“criteria for eligibility for protection” TRIPS 16

“interested party” (PC 10(2)) TRIPS 32

“nationals of other Members” (TRIPS 1.3) TRIPS 1516, 18

relationships within and between agreements

GATT III:4/TRIPS 3.1 GATT 417

TRIPS 16.1/TRIPS 22.2 TRIPS 159

TRIPS 31.3/TRIPS 22.2 TRIPS 4, 155

separate customs territory, explanatory notes (“country”, “countries” and “national”) and WTO 3056

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1), “technical regulation” (Annex 1.1), “fair use of descriptive terms” TRIPS 138

third party rights (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), panel’s right to draw on third party submissions DSU 497

trademarks (TRIPS Part II Section 2)

“limited exceptions” (TRIPS 17) DSU 1367

autonomy of provision/limited correlation with other TRIPS articles TRIPS 145

burden of proof TRIPS 144

“legitimate interests”

legal rights distinguished TRIPS 139

“of third parties” TRIPS 1423

“take account of” TRIPS 1401

trademarks, limitation to TRIPS 136

rights conferred (TRIPS 16), “exclusive right”, as negative right TRIPS 1312, 1313, 1367

TRIPS Agreement

applicability to “nationals of other Members” (TRIPS 1.3)

“domiciled” / “real and effective … establishment” (PC 3) TRIPS 18, 23

GIs (TRIPS 22.2) and TRIPS 4, 155

international law criteria TRIPS 15, 523

national treatment (TRIPS 3.1) TRIPS 35

PC criteria for eligibility TRIPS 1516, 18

“separate customs territory Member” (Footnote 1 to TRIPS 1.3) TRIPS 16

English, French and Spanish texts compared TRIPS 17

implementation obligation (TRIPS 1.1)

freedom to choose method TRIPS 910, 1534

implementation of more extensive protection, relevance TRIPS 6

more extensive protection option (TRIPS 1.1) TRIPS 6

object and purpose (preamble)

effective and adequate protection of intellectual property rights TRIPS 1, 3

new rules and principles TRIPS 2

principles (TRIPS 8), “anything not prohibited” /negative right approach TRIPS 81, 1312

“protection” (TRIPS 3 and 4), applicability to intellectual property rights addressed by TRIPS (TRIPs 3 footnote 3) TRIPS 68

unilateral statements, legal effect DSU 1687

wines and spirits, additional protection for GIs (TRIPS 23), protected rights (TRIPS 16), potential for conflict TRIPS 164

 

EC — Tube or Pipe Fittings (AB), WT/DS219/AB/R, DSR 2003:VI and DSR:VIII

anti-dumping and countervailing duties (GATT VI) including interrelationship with AD Agreement, detemination of dumping (AD 2/GATT VI:2), method, right to choose GATT 463

anti-dumping duties, imposition and collection (AD 9), calculation of “all other” anti-dumping duty rate (AD 9.4), method, absence of provision AD 471

determination of dumping (AD 2)

calculation of SG&A costs (AD 2.2.2), actual data “pertaining to”, low-volume sales data AD 578

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5), non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5) AD 286

non-attribution to dumped imports of injury caused by other factors (AD 3.5) SCM 446

cumulative assessment (AD 3.3)

applicability to volume and prices analysis (AD 3.2) AD 236

conditions for cumulation, AD 3.3 conditions as sole requirement AD 237

examination of other known factors (AD 3.5), “known” to investigating authority AD 280

rationale AD 238

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1), calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), method, right to choose, GATT VI:2 and GATT 463

period of investigation (POI)

changes during, relevance AD 1415

developments during period of investigation, relevance AD 1415

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2), cumulative analysis (AD 3.3), applicability AD 236, 237

determination of injury (AD 3), evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4), consideration of each factor, need to be “apparent” in final determination AD 263

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2), late provision of information and AD 494

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4)

opportunity for defence (AD 6.2) and AD 494

“relevant”, interested parties’ perspective as determinant AD 470

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.4.2/GATT VI:2 AD 164

AD 3.2/AD 3.3 AD 236

AD 6.2/AD 6.4 AD 494

standard/powers of review (AB) (issues of law and legal interpretations) (DSU 17.6), issues not identified during Panel proceedings DSU 851

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), de novo review, exclusion AD 915

 

EC — Tube or Pipe Fittings (Panel), WT/DS219/R, DSR 2003:VI and DSR:VIII

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), principles (AD 1), “initiated and conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement”, developments during period of investigation, relevance AD 7

anti-dumping duties, duration and review (AD 11)

AD 11.1 as general principle underlying AD 11.2 and 3 AD 740

review mechanism, AD 11.2 as AD 752

“warranted” (AD 11.2) AD 752

arguendo assumptions, “even assuming” DSU 313

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3), “submissions” and statements of own position distinguished DSU 734

determination of dumping (AD 2)

conditions for cumulation

AD 3.3 conditions as sole requirement AD 237

“conditions of competition” (AD 3.3(b)) and AD 23940

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices, need to examine, “factors affecting domestic prices” AD 271

“domestic industry”, companies outside domestic industry, relevance AD 246

“evaluation” AD 260

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

“due allowance”, “in each case, on its merits” AD 90

exchange rates and (AD 2.4.1) AD 111

general “fair comparison” requirement and AD 111

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1), calculation of dumping margins (AD 2.4), comparison of weighted average normal value with weighted average of all comparable export transactions (AD 2.4.2), refund of duties or taxes (AD 2.4.2/GATT VI:4) GATT 478

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2), price undercutting/suppression analysis AD 205 n. 277, 231

determination of injury (AD 3), cumulative assessment (AD 3.3), conditions AD 237

developing countries (AD 15)

“constructive remedy”

lesser duty or price undertaking AD 858 n. 1157

whether “material” for purpose of AD 12.2 AD 846

obligations (first sentence) AD 855

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

good faith obligation (DSU 3.10) DSU 345

prejudice to party, relevance DSU 314, 734

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

on-the-spot verification (AD 6.7)

as documentary exercise AD 525 n. 710

as option AD 525

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4), information already available to parties distinguished AD 478

executive summaries (panel working procedures), panel’s request for DSU 734

good faith engagement in dispute settlement procedures (DSU 3.10)

clarity of claims, need for DSU 120

due process obligations and DSU 345

identification of specific measures (DSU 6.2) DSU 120

implementation of panel or AB recommendations (DSU 19.1), panel’s decision not to make suggestions DSU 980

legal basis of claim / “claim” / “matter referred” (DSU 6.2/7.1)

arguments distinguished DSU 120, 314, 345

clarification of claim during proceedings DSU 120, 345

identification of treaty provisions DSU 31314

“especially, but not exclusively” DSU 313

listing of articles without explanation, sufficiency DSU 313

limitation of jurisdiction to cited provisions (DSU 7.2) DSU 313

“especially, but not exclusively”, effect DSU 313

“like product” (AD 2.6), constructed normal value (AD 2.2.2) and AD 78

preliminary rulings on

claims outside terms of reference DSU 313

specificity of request for panel (DSU 6.2) DSU 345

prompt and satisfactory settlement (DSU 3.3) DSU 345

ABWP and DSU 120

public notice of preliminary or final determination (AD 12.2), explanations for initiation of investigations (AD 12.2.2), relevance/sufficiency AD 836

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.2.2/AD 2.6 AD 78

AD 2.4.1/AD 2.4 as a whole AD 111

AD 6.5/AD 12 AD 845

AD 11.1/AD 11.2 AD 752

AD 12/AD 15 AD 846

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, subsequent cure of defect, exclusion DSU 345

technical regulations (TBT 2/Annex 1.1), functional approach to (TBT 2.8), “wherever appropriate” TBT 77

Working Procedures, fair, prompt and effective settlement as objective DSU 345

 

e-commerce (in chronological order of developments)

Global E-Commerce Declaration (Geneva 20 May 1998) WTO 32, 54, 67

General Council Decision on E-Commerce Work Programme and moratorium on customs duties (25 September 1998) WTO 33

E-Commerce Work Programme (Doha 34) (14 November 2001) WTO 34

developing countries and (GATS IV) GATS 49

General Council Decision post-Cancún (1 August 2004) WTO 35

Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration (HK 46) (18 December 2005) WTO 36

Ministerial Decision on E-Commerce Work Programme and moratorium on customs duties (Geneva 2 December 2009) WTO 37, 60

GATS and GATS 8, 44, 58, 63, 66, 68, 76, 96, 126

 

economic integration (GATS V)

Labour Markets Integration Agreement (GATS V bis), notification format GATS 57

notification format (GATS V:7) GATS 53

reporting obligations (GATS V:7) GATS 56

RTAs, notification GATT 1016

national treatment (GATS V:1(b))/MFN treatment (GATS II), applicability GATS 52

RTAs, reports on GATS 53

“substantially all discrimination” (GATS V:1(b)) GATS 52

 

EEC — Animal Feed Proteins (GATT Panel), BISD 25/S/49

interim review (DSU 15), termination of measures following, effect DSU 384 n. 623

“measures at issue” (DSU 6.2), terminated measures, termination following interim review DSU 384 n. 623

 

EEC — Apples I (Chile) (GATT Panel), BISD 27S/98

non-discriminatory administration of QRs (GATT XIII), allocation of quotas (GATT XIII:2(d)), to Members not having a substantial interest, “representative period” GATT 672 n. 945

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b)), nullification or impairment, need for, measures in force, limitation to GATT 973

 

EEC — Cotton Yarn (GATT Panel), BISD 42/17

developing countries (AD 15)

“constructive remedy”, “shall be explored” AD 859 n. 1158

obligations (first sentence), Tokyo Round Anti-Dumping Code (Art. 13) compared AD 854 n. 1152

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), “shall be explored” (AD 15) AD 859 n. 1158

 

EEC — Dessert Apples (GATT Panel), L/6491, BISD 36S/93, judicial economy DSU 637 n. 1040

 

EEC — Imports from Hong Kong (GATT Panel), BISD30S/129, RTAs (GATT XXIV:5), examination (GATT XXIV:7 and Understanding 7), absence of recommendation, effect GATT 1028

 

EEC — Oilseed I (GATT Panel), BISD 37S/86

adverse effects (SCM 5), nullification or impairment of benefits (SCM 5(b)), systematic offset as SCM 264

non-violation claims (GATT XXIII:1(b))

“benefit” /legitimate expectation of improved market access as, arising out of successive rounds of negotiation GATT 975

as exceptional remedy GATT 959, 961 n. 1359

measure in “conflict” with GATT provisions, applicability to, concurrent application to measures falling under other provisions of GATT GATT 963

nullification or impairment, need for, competitive relationship as key factor GATT 986

nullification or impairment (GATT XXIII), measures in force, limitation to GATT 973

 

EEC — Parts and Components (GATT Panel), BISD 37S/132

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “laws, regulations or requirements”, private action and GATT 355

State responsibility as rule/general principle of international law (ILC Articles), responsibility for act or omission of, private parties DSU 250

 

Egypt — Steel Rebar (Panel), WT/DS211/R, DSR 2002:VII

Anti-Dumping Agreement (AD), preparatory work (VCLT 32), Annex II

burden of proof (general rules), written record of analysis, relevance AD 267

causation analysis (SG 4.2(b)) (determination of serious injury or threat of), coincidence of trends in imports and in injury factors SG 189

data collection period (AD2 and AD3), absence of provision AD 171

determination of dumping (AD 2)

cost data (AD 2.2.1.1), “reasonably reflect costs” requirement AD 48

export price, construction in absence of [reliable] actual export price, fair comparison (AD 2.4) distinguished AD 72

fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4)

construction of normal value (AD 2.2) distinguished AD 72

“due allowance”, “in each case, on its merits” AD 89

“fair comparison” AD 80

burden of proof AD 80, 89

object and purpose AD 80

“normal value … in the ordinary course of trade” (AD 2.1)

calculation of administrative, selling and general costs and profits (AD 2.2.2)

actual books and records as basis AD 48

reasonable reflection of costs associated with the production and sale of article AD 48

determination of injury (AD 3)

causal relationship, manner of evaluating (AD 3.5), AD 3.2/AD 3.4 and AD 170, 257

evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4)

all relevant economic factors and indices, need to examine

“factors affecting domestic prices” AD 270

“growth” AD 272

“having a bearing on” AD 257, 269

“profits” AD 269

“evaluation” AD 259

written record of analysis, need for AD 2678

“positive evidence” / “objective examination” requirement (AD 3.1)

“objective examination”, evaluation of injury factors (AD 3.4) AD 270

“positive evidence” AD 184 n. 247

significant increase in dumped imports (AD 3.2), price undercutting/suppression analysis AD 220, 230

threat of material injury (AD 3.7), “facts, not merely allegation, conjecture or remote possibility”, a “clearly foreseen and imminent” change of circumstances, need for AD 291

underlying principles (AD 3.1) and AD 170

due process (anti-dumping measures) (AD 6), as underlying principle AD 80

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

due process, AD 6 as framework AD 80

“facts available”, right to use (AD 6.8/Annex II), failure to cooperate (AD Annex VII para. 7), cooperation “to the best of its ability” AD 576

on-the-spot verification (AD 6.7)

AD, Annex I and AD 523

on-the-spot request for further details (Annex I para. 7) AD 523

opportunity for defence of interests, right to (AD 6.2), “opportunity” AD 463

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1), supplementary requests for information distinguished AD 437

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

additional information, right to request (Annex II para. 1) AD 542

Annex II

applicability to AD 6.8 as a whole AD 536, 987

mandatory nature AD 536

preparatory work (VCLT 32) AD 533

reliability of facts, role in ensuring AD 533

conditions for (Annex II) AD 5456

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), cooperation, relevance AD 559

invocation separately from AD 6.8 AD 997

“necessary information” AD 5645

obligation to submit information “as soon as possible” (Annex II para. 1) AD 5412

“reasonable period” (Annex II para. 6) AD 9934

reasons for disregarding information, need for AD 593

secondary source information … with special circumspection (Annex II para. 7) AD 584

“shall” AD 536

specification “in detail” (Annex II para. 1) AD 541

good faith (including pacta sunt servanda principle (VCLT 26)), “facts available”, right of resort to (AD 6.8/Annex II) and AD 559

interpretation of covered agreements, rules relating to including VCLT provisions

dictionaries AD 259, 580

ordinary meaning

“evaluation” AD 259

“fair comparison” AD 80

parties’ common intentions (VCLT 31(1)), preamble as reflection of AD 533

text/plain language (VCLT 31(2)) AD 220

precedent, distinguishability of cases and AD 265 n. 379

preparatory work (VCLT 32), AD Annex II AD 533

public notice and explanation of determinations (AD 12)

AD 3.4 factors, written record of analysis and AD 268

due process and AD 268

as due process requirement AD 268

“reasonable period”, AD Annex II para. 6 AD 9934

relationships within and between agreements

AD 2.2/2.4 AD 70

AD 2.2/AD 2.4 AD 77

AD 3 as a whole AD 170

AD 3.4 as a whole AD 257

AD 3.4/AD 12.2 AD 268

AD 6.1.1/AD, Annex I AD 437

AD 6.2/AD Annex II AD 998

AD 6.7/AD Annex I AD 523

AD 6.8/AD Annex II AD 536

standard/powers of review (panel) (AD 17.6), assessment of the facts (AD 17.6(i)), applicability to investigating authority AD 259

transparency, written record/notification and AD 2678

 

electronic commerce: see e-commerce (in chronological order of developments)

 

electronic transmission of information, technical regulations (TBT 2.9) TBT 87

 

emergency action (GATT XIX)

“as a result of unforeseen developments” (GATT XIX:1(a)) GATT 8034, 838 n. 1136

“as a result … of the effect of obligations incurred by Member” GATT 82630

“as a result of” GATT 804 n. 1087, 81820

condition (SG 2.1) and circumstance distinguished GATT 815

confluence of developments as basis GATT 817

critical date GATT 8213

“demonstration”, need for GATT 80517

“as a pertinent issue of fact and law” /finding (SG 3.1) GATT 8067, SG 103

prior to application of measure GATT 810

in respect of each measure GATT 81213

increased imports, “unforeseen” requirement GATT 820

objective/subjective nature of legal standard GATT 816

omission from SG 2.1, relevance GATT 803, 805, 8401, DSU 1555 n. 2388

publication of findings and reasoned conclusions (SG 3.1) and SG 95, 99

reasoned and adequate explanation requirement (SG 3.1) GATT 8002, 811, 814

standard of review GATT 8002

as extraordinary/emergency remedy GATT 7969

free trade agreements/customs unions and (SG 2.1 footnote 1) GATT 10556

GATT practice GATT 837

 

emergency safeguard measures (GATS X) GATS 69

GATT practice GATT 59

multilateral negotiations GATS 69

Working Party on GATS Rules and GATS 69, 214

 

Enabling Clause (EC)

adoption (1979) WTO 118, GATT 58, 998

burden of proof and GATT 823, DSU 574

conformity with GSP (generalized, non-reciprocal and non-discriminatory treatment) (EC 2(a)) GATT 859

“developing countries” (EC 2(a)) GATT 90

“discriminate” / “non-discriminatory”, absence of clear qualifying criteria or standards GATT 88

“generalized” (EC 2(a) footnote 3) GATT 84

“in accordance” GATT 81

as exception to GATT I:1 GATT 80

“notwithstanding” (EC 1) GATT 80

least developed countries (EC 2(d)), EC 2(a) and GATT 91

notifications (EC 4(a)) GATT 603

GSP schemes GATT 63

Trade and Development Committee’s role GATT 60, 64

as “other decision” (GATT 1994(1)(b)(iv)) GATT 12

as “positive effort” (WTO Preamble) WTO 56

preparatory work (VCLT 32) GATT 84

1971 Waiver Decision GATT 84

PTAs Transparency Mechanism (2010) WTO 121

regional or global arrangements amongst less-developed countries (EC 2(c))

notification procedures GATT 64

notifications GATT 1016

RTAs and: see RTAs (GATT XXIV:5), notifications (Enabling Clause)

special treatment of least-developed countries (EC 2(d))

notification procedures, Waiver on Preferential Tariff Treatment (1999) GATT 103

notifications GATT 79

text GATT 58

transparency (EC 4): see transparency mechanism (PTAs) (2010)

treatment designed and … modified to respond to needs of developing countries (EC 3(c)) GATT 89, 90, 945

development, financial and trade needs, limitation to GATT 89

differential treatment, scope for GATT 945

objective standard, need for GATT 89

“positive” response GATT 89, 945

“treatment designed to facilitate and promote the trade of developing countries …” (EC 3(a)) GATT 923

identity of tariff preferences, relevance GATT 88, 92

undue burden GATT 93

 

end-use systems (AIR 2.2) AIR 12

 

enquiry/contact points

GATS III:4/GATS IV:2 GATS 47, 50, 501

accountancy services GATS 51

SPS Annex B(3) SPS 545

TBT 10.1 and 10.3 TBT 1213

TRIPS 69 TRIPS 306

 

environment

see also Trade and Environment Committee (WTO IV:7); trade and environment (Doha 31–3)

GATS XIV (general exceptions) and, Decision on Trade in Services and the Environment GATS 77

protection as legitimate goal of national and international policy WTO 1, 2

SPS measures (Annex A(1)) and SPS 4624

WTO Preamble

Members’ right to determine own policies WTO 1

trade policies and, obligation to coordinate WTO 1

 

Equivalence, Decision on Implementation of SPS 4 (26 October 2001) SPS 10421

determination of equivalence

comparison of level of protection SPS 11213

Guidelines to Further the Practical Implementation of SPS 5.5 as aid SPS 112

resolution of differences SPS 113

developing countries and SPS 118

“equivalence” SPS 106

explanation of SPS measures, required elements SPS 107

international cooperation outside the WTO SPS 11516

interruption or suspension of imports and SPS 11011

Members’ obligation to determine ALOP SPS 103

notification of the conclusion of equivalence agreements SPS 363

notification of experience relating to implementation of SPS 4 SPS 117

recognition procedure

accelerated/expedited procedure SPS 109

notification procedure and format (2002) SPS 104

summary of requirements SPS 108

revisions/clarifications SPS 104

status as non-binding instrument SPS 105

technical assistance to facilitate implementation of SPS 4 SPS 114

timetable and agenda for discussion (2002) SPS 118

 

erga omnes obligations DSU 1699700

 

error as to fact or situation, effect on validity of treaty (VCLT 48(1))

GPA 32, 346

 

estoppel

acquiescence distinguished DSU 1703

AD 5.5 violations and AD 391, 456

arguendo assumptions and DSU 663

definition AD 391

as general principle of international law DSU 112, 17037

good faith (DSU 3.10) and DSU 11012, 195, 17057

panel competence, related proceedings in another forum and DSU 1704

 

European Union

Enabling Clause notifications

GSP schemes GATT 63

special treatment of least-developed countries GATT 79

“separate customs territory” (TRIPS 1.3 footnote 1), whether TRIPS 17

 

European Union, Working Party on Enlargement, establishment GATT 1020

 

evidence, acceptability as for “objective assessment” (DSU 11) purposes

circumstantial evidence DSU 6335

evidence obtained during consultations DSU 630

factual findings in previous disputes DSU 631

practice in application of laws DSU 336

public statements by company executives/government officials DSU 636

timing of acts of administration (GATT X:3(a)), relevance GATT 561, DSU 630

 

evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

see also evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

confidential information: see confidential information (SCM 12.4)

“information which the authorities require” (SCM 12.1) SCM 3789

“due notice” / “ample opportunity” (SCM 12.1) SCM 379

“interested parties” (SCM 12.9) SCM 396400

“allowing” SCM 3989

non-exhaustive nature of SCM 12.9 examples SCM 3967

resort to “facts available” (SCM 12.7) and SCM 391, 400

Members’ discretion to define own procedure SCM 377, 507

notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (SCM 12.8)

double remedies and SCM 395

“essential facts” SCM 3934

notification of “essential facts” and evidence required to establish claim distinguished SCM 395

on-the-spot verification (SCM 12.6 and Annex VI) SCM 387, 679

questionnaires (SCM 12.1.1)

supplementary questionnaires, status SCM 380

time limits for reply SCM 3801

resort to “facts available” (SCM 12.7) SCM 38892

AD 6.8 compared/distinguished AD 547, SCM 390

authorities’ failure to give notice of required information (SCM 12.1) and SCM 392

designation of “interested party” (SCM 12.9) and SCM 391

due process considerations SCM 390

limitation to facts which might reasonably have been made available SCM 390

obligation of panel to consider all information provided SCM 390

purpose of provision SCM 390, 400

secondary source information SCM 389, 390

standard of review (investigating authority) SCM 57981

 

evidence (dumping investigation) (AD 6)

see also evidence (countervailing duty investigation) (SCM 12)

access to information provided by another interested party (AD 6.1.1/AD 6.1.2) AD 4925

access to file distinguished AD 449

confidential information AD 452

AD 6.5 and AD 452, 459

“interested parties participating in the investigation AD 451

“promptly” AD 44950

accuracy of information, authorities’ obligation to satisfy themselves (AD 6.6)

as responsibility of authorities AD 522

“satisfy themselves” AD 520

substantive relevance distinguished AD 521

“ample opportunity to present in writing all evidence” (AD 6.1)

extension “upon cause shown … whenever practicable” AD 563

obligation to take all submitted information into account SCM 390

communication of full text of application (AD 6.1.3)

“as soon as an investigation has been initiated” AD 453

“to provide” AD 4545

confidential information (AD 6.5): see confidential information (AD 6.5)

difficulties in supplying information, due account/assistance in case of (AD 6.13) AD 583, 604

balance of interests of investigating authorities and exporters and AD 639

due process as underlying principle AD 80, 186, 4256

balance of interests considerations AD 438, 4434, 512, 514, 583, 598, 604, 606, 639

“known exporters” (AD 6.10) AD 632

“known exporters” (AD 6.1)/ “interested parties known” (AD 12.1) AD 436

“notice of the information …” (AD 6.1)

change of legal basis, obligation to inform interested parties, whether AD 4334, 618

clear request for information, need for AD 427, 458, 543, 605

“information” (AD 6.1) and “legal determinations” (AD 6.9) distinguished AD 434, 618

notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (AD 6.9) AD 460

before final determination AD 613

change of legal basis, relevance AD 433, 617, 61819

disclosure obligations AD 5278

as documentary exercise AD 525 n. 710

essential facts AD 61114, 614, 61516, 619

essential facts forming basis of preliminary determination, sufficiency for subsequent proceedings AD 617

“facts” vs “reasoning” AD 612, 614

“further information … to be provided” (Annex I, para. 7)

information verifiable on the spot AD 526

right to verify AD 526, 985

“information” (AD 6.1) and “legal determinations” (AD 6.9) distinguished AD 434, 618

on-the-spot request for further details (Annex I para. 7) AD 523 as option AD 5245, 983

participation of non-governmental experts (Annex I, para. 2)

conflict of interest and AD 529, 984

non-cooperation (AD 6.8), as justification for AD 529, 582

notification of participation, burden of proof AD 530

notification of reasons for AD 531

timely disclosure of relevant information (AD 6.4) distinguished AD 616

obligation of exporting country to make exporters/producers aware of investigation (AD 6.1.1 footnote 15) AD 448

on-the-spot verification (AD 6.7), AD Annex I and AD 523

opportunity for defence of interests (AD 6.2) AD 185, 4619

change of legal basis, obligation to inform interested parties (AD 12.2) AD 4334, 462, 618

due process rights AD 461

interrelationship between AD 6.2, first and second sentences AD 461

late provision of information and AD 4656, 487, 494

“opportunity” AD 463

re-determination of injury factors (AD 3.4) and AD 464

relationship with other AD 6 paragraphs AD 45769

questionnaires (AD 6.1.1)

failure to send, relevance AD 441

request for substantial amount of information as essential feature AD 43940

right of all interested parties to receive AD 446

supplementary questionnaires, obligation/practice AD 435

supplementary requests for information distinguished AD 437

time limits for reply AD 422, 43840

resort to “facts available” (AD 6.8/Annex II)

AD 6.8/Annex II relationship AD 535

AD 6.8/SCM 12.7 relationship AD 547, SCM 390

additional information, right to request (Annex II para. 1) AD 542

adverse facts AD 591

Annex II

applicability to AD 6.8 as a whole AD 536, 987

mandatory nature AD 536, 537

obligations under AD 5389

preparatory work (VCLT 32) AD 533

reliability of facts, role in ensuring AD 533

balance between rights of investigating authorities and legitimate interests of parties, obligation to cooperate (Annex II para. 7) AD 583, 604, 639

in case of exporter not notified of required information AD 553

in case of verifiable information AD 556

“verifiable” (Annex II(3)) AD 5578

conditions for (Annex II) AD 5448, 54955

ex post justification, relevance AD 601

extension of period of investigation and (Annex II para. 1) AD 540

failure to cooperate (AD Annex VII para. 7)

cooperation “to the best of its ability” AD 57480

“less favourable result” as possible consequence AD 573, 708

participation of non-governmental experts in on-the-spot verification as justification AD 529, 582

failure to submit necessary information “in timely fashion” (Annex II para. 3) and AD 563

interpretation in light of AD 6.1.1, 6.8/Annex II para. 1 AD 563, 567, 605

as “reasonable period” / “reasonable time” AD 563, 56871

good faith cooperation, relevance AD 559, 574

“information appropriately submitted so that it can be used … without undue difficulties” (Annex II(3)) AD 5602

information in medium or computer language required (Annex II para. 1) AD 572

information provided within reasonable period, investigating authorities’ obligation to use AD 54955

invocation separately from AD 6.8 AD 997

“necessary information” AD 5646

objective decision-making based on facts and AD 532

obligation to submit information “as soon as possible” (Annex II para. 1) AD 5402

reasons for disregarding information, need for AD 5926

right to submit further information AD 597

secondary source information … with special circumspection (Annex II para. 7) AD 58490

“shall” AD 536, 537

specification “in detail” (Annex II para. 1) AD 541, 543

time limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1) AD 4426

sunset reviews and AD 443

unjustified resort to available facts AD 5545

sampling (AD 6.10): see sampling (AD 6.10)

sunset review procedures compared AD 792

sunset review (SCM 21.3), absence of cross-reference from SCM 36970, 48990, 498, 499

time limits, right to set (AD 6.1.1) AD 428, 43840

AD 12 distinguished AD 429

“ample opportunity” (chapeau) and AD 42830

due process and AD 438

extension “upon cause shown … whenever practicable” AD 442

ADP Committee Recommendation (2001) AD 447

failure to provide information on AD 431

“facts available” (AD 6.8) and AD 442, 567

reply to questionnaires AD 43840, 442

date of receipt as trigger AD 446

sunset reviews AD 4435

timely disclosure to interested parties of information relevant for presentation of case (AD 6.4) AD 47095

accidental omission of part of information AD 4823

“harmless error” distinguished AD 483

analysis of constituent elements AD 449, 480, 486

information already available to parties distinguished AD 4789

“information used by the authorities” AD 4723, 475, 484

price comparison (AD 2.4) and AD 4767

NMEs and AD 477

opportunity for defence (AD 6.2) and AD 4656, 487, 494

parties’ own confidential information AD 491

payment of fee, relevance AD 481

“relevant” AD 4709

interested parties’ perspective as determinant AD 470, 474

panel’s obligation to assure itself of validity of “information” AD 915

request, need for AD 48890

sunset reviews and AD 4845

pressure of time, relevance AD 485

“timely” AD 473

 

evidence, evaluation

good faith and SCM 250

private parties/subjects of international law distinguished SCM 250

 

evidence (investigation of dumping) (AD 6), notification to all interested parties of essential facts under consideration (AD 6.9), choice of means AD 60910

 

evidence (panel) (DSU 12)

domestic law procedure distinguished DSU 632

evidence (panel) (DSU 12), time limits for submission, panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence DSU 729

time limits for submission

absence of provision (Working Procedures (Appendix 3)) SCM 18890, DSU 622

typical ad hoc provision for DSU 728

accelerated procedures (SCM 4.3) and SCM 18890, 1914, 197

affirmative defence (SCM 3.1) DSU 731

panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence SCM 188, DSU 6228, 7289

absence of objection by other party DSU 622

evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 78995

information in the public domain DSU 625

opportunity to comment, need for DSU 627, 729

relevance/significance of evidence and DSU 625

time limit for rebuttal DSU 6223

panel’s right to admit “late” /new evidence (DSU 15), evidence submitted during interim review (DSU 15) DSU 626

“rebuttal submissions” DSU 628

SCM 4 and SCM 18890

as two-stage process DSU 622

presentation of case including facts DSU 622

rebuttal of arguments and evidence DSU 622

 

ex aequo et bono jurisdiction DSU 1708

 

ex parte communications with panel or AB (DSU 18.1)

see also confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 14/DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2/WP 3/ABWP 27)

BCI (DSU 18.2) and DSU 9057

party’s attempt to place limitation on handling of confidential communications DSU 9069

party’s refusal to accept BCI procedures allegedly contravening rule, effect DSU 905

 

ex proprio motu obligations of panel/AB: see competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11/DSU 17), compétence de la compétence/obligation to address jurisdictional issues [on own motion]

 

exchange arrangements (IMF/WTO) (GATT XV)

consultations (GATT XV:2) GATT 6957

dispute settlement and GATT 698705, DSU 753

IMF findings, status GATT 7045

cooperation (GATT XV:1) GATT 694

“exchange controls or exchange restrictions” (GATT XV:9(a))

burden of proof (as exception/affirmative defence) GATT 707

criteria for determining GATT 708

GATT practice GATT 713

IMF obligation to inform WTO of decisions relating to GATT 70912

measures other than exchange restrictions, applicability to GATT 712

special exchange arrangements (GATT XV:6), accession protocol (Chinese Taipei) GATT 706

 

exchange rates (AD 2.4.1): see determination of dumping (AD 2); fair comparison of export price and normal value (AD 2.4); exchange rates and (AD 2.4.1)

 

exclusive marketing rights (TRIPS 70.9): see intellectual property rights availability scope and use (TRIPS Part II) exclusive marketing rights obligations (TRIPS 70.9)

 

executive summaries (panel working procedures) DSU 7325

length/structure DSU 735

non-summarized material, inclusion in panel report DSU 733

panel’s request for DSU 7335

typical clause DSU 732

 

exhaustible resources: see General Exceptions (GATT XX(g)) measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources

 

expedited review, right to (SCM 19.3) SCM 4646

aggregated investigations SCM 465

double remedies and GATT 4801, SCM 466, DSU 1617

entitled SCM 464

 

expert evidence (DSU 13.2/SPS 11.2)

17.765–8: see also consultation and dispute settlement (TBT 14), technical expert group, panel’s right to establish (TBT 14.2), information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13.1/SPS 11.2)

ad hoc rules DSU 765

applicability of SPS 11(2) SPS 394

Article 21.5 proceedings DSU 1172

disclosure requirement SPS 40910

due process and

case-by-case approach SPS 423

framing of questions SPS 424

establishment of prima facie case and SPS 40

expert evidence/Member’s scientific evidence, primacy SPS 41, DSU 609

group of experts, panel’s right to establish DSU 765

independence and impartiality

affiliations raising doubts SPS 41416, DSU 61920, 147881

panel’s obligation to ensure SPS 41113, DSU 620, 14801

Rules of Conduct (RoC I and III:2) SPS 418, DSU 147781, 1486

self-disclosure (RoC VI) SPS 410, DSU 14912

independent assessment by panel DSU 538

international organizations and SPS 4067

legal characterisation of measure as matter for panel DSU 767

multiple complainants and (DSU 9.3) DSU 48890

need for experts, determination by panel against the wishes/with the agreement of the parties SPS 3978

number of experts SPS 405

panel’s role, limitations on SPS 39

SCM 4.2 (statement of available evidence) and SCM 194

selection process

consultation with parties SPS 4012, 427

importance SPS 399400

significant investigative authority SPS 41922

consideration of issues outside terms of reference, exclusion SPS 22

establishment of party’s case by panel, exclusion SPS 278, 421, 548, DSU 5567, 766

panel‘s “broad discretion” SPS 41920, 428

table showing use of DSU 768

Working Procedures applicable to SPS 417

 

expert review groups, rules and procedures (DSU Appendix 4)

non-resort to DSU 1362

text DSU 1361 (Section XXXI)

 

explanatory notes (“country”, “countries” and “national”), interpretation and application WTO 3056

 

export competition commitments (AG 8)

compliance with AG and scheduled commitments AG 191

waiver AG 82

 

export credit guarantees: see export subsidy commitments prevention of circumvention (AG 10), export credit guarantees (AG 10.2); Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I); export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)); NFIDC, implementation (AG 16)

 

export subsidy commitments (AG 9)

see also export subsidy definition (AG 1(e))

costs of marketing exports (AG 9.1(d))

general business costs distinguished AG 108

income tax, whether AG 108

“direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a))

“contingent on export performance” AG 86

“governments or their agencies” AG 85

payment-in-kind as direct subsidy AG 84

 

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10)

AG 3.3 prohibition on export subsidies and AG 11617

burden of proof (AG 10.3)

reversal AG 126

scheduled products, limitation to AG 1278

export competition commitments (AG 8) and AG 117

export credit guarantees (AG 10.2)

“development” AG 1245

exclusion from AG 10.1, whether AG 1245

“export subsidies” (AG 9.1) and AG 125

implementation

Agriculture Committee’s work programme AG 11823

Doha recommendations AG 119

Hong Kong Declaration AG 122

Modalities for Agriculture AG 121, 123

“export subsidies … applied in a manner which results in, or which threatens to lead to, circumvention …” (AG 10.1)

“circumvention”

scheduled and unscheduled products distinguished AG 116, 11617

threat of circumvention, obligation to take action AG 113

threat of circumvention, sufficiency AG 112

“export subsidy commitments” AG 110

tax exemption, discretionary nature/legal right AG 11415

“export subsidy” (AG 1(3)/SCM 1.1 and 3.1) AG 1618, SCM 1814

Informal Group on Anti-Circumvention, ADP Decision on (April 1997)

GATT II and AD 1018

role and membership AD 1017

international food aid (AG 10.4) AG 12931

relationship with AG 10.1 AG 129

 

export subsidy, definition (AG 1(e)) AG 1113

“contingent upon export performance” AG 1419

SCM 3.1(a) compared AG 14, 1719

 

export subsidy, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

see also payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c))

“contingent … upon the use of domestic over imported goods” (SCM 3.1(b)), de facto contingency SCM 165, 1667

“contingent in fact …” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 13247

“anticipated” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 136, 139

“but for” test SCM 134

case-by-case approach SCM 1414

close connection, need for SCM 132

de facto contingency SCM 13240

examination of all relevant facts, need for (SCM3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 141

facts at time of establishment of conditions for grant, limitation to SCM 142

“grant or maintain” (SCM 3.1 footnote 4) SCM 136

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency SCM 1334

objective test SCM 140

size of domestic market, relevance SCM 147

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a) footnote 4) SCM 1323, 13640

“contingent in law …” (SCM 3.1(a)) SCM 12731

“contingent” (SCM 3.1) SCM 126, 1329, 165

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) (general) AG 1415, SCM 1256

“contingent” SCM 126

“export performance” SCM 1489

GATT XVI:4 distinguished SCM 100

OECDD Arrangement, compliance with, relevance SCM 79

subsidy available to property produced either within or outside subsidizing State SCM 1502

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1 chapeau) SCM 124

“grant or maintain” (SCM 3.2) SCM 1747

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I): see Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

national treatment exceptions (GATT III:8(b)) and GATT 390, 41922

national treatment (GATT III) and GATT 4201

 

external debt: see Trade Debt and Finance Working Group (Doha 36)

  

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