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WTO ANALYTICAL INDEX: TRIPS

Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights

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> Preamble
> Article 1
> Article 2 and Incorporated Provisions of the Paris Convention (1967)
> Article 3
> Article 4
> Article 5
> Article 6
> Article 7
> Article 8
> Article 9 and Incorporated Provisions of the Berne Convention (1971)
> Article 10
> Article 11
> Article 12
> Article 13
> Article 14
> Article 15
> Article 16
> Article 17
> Article 18
> Article 19
> Article 20
> Article 21
> Article 22
> Article 23
> Article 24
> Article 25
> Article 26
> Article 27
> Article 28
> Article 29
> Article 30
> Article 31
> Article 32
> Article 33
> Article 34
> Article 35 and Incorporated Provisions of the IPIC Treaty
> Article 36
> Article 37
> Article 38
> Article 39
> Article 40
> Article 41
> Article 42
> Article 43
> Article 44
> Article 45
> Article 46
> Article 47
> Article 48
> Article 49
> Article 50
> Article 51
> Article 52
> Article 53
> Article 54
> Article 55
> Article 56
> Article 57
> Article 58
> Article 59
> Article 60
> Article 61
> Article 62
> Article 63
> Article 64
> Article 65
> Article 66
> Article 67
> Article 68
> Article 69
> Article 70
> Article 71
> Article 72
> Article 73
> Text of the Provisions of the Paris Convention (1967) Incorporated by Article 2.1 of the TRIPS Agreement
> Text of the Provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) Incorporated by Article 9.1 of the TRIPS Agreement
> Text of the Provisions of the IPIC Treaty Incorporated by Article 35 of the TRIPS Agreement
> Text of the Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health

 

> Analytical Index main page


Table of contents    back to top

I. Preamble    back to top

A. Text of the Preamble
B. Interpretation and Application of the Preamble

 
II. Article 1    back to top

A. Text of Article 1
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 1

1. Article 1.1

(a) General

(b) “Members shall give effect to the provisions of this Agreement”

(c) “free to determine the appropriate method of implementing”

2. Article 1.2

3. Article 1.3

(a) “Nationals of other Members”

(b) “Criteria for eligibility for protection provided for in the Paris Convention (1967)”

(c) Footnote 1 to Article 1.3

(i) “Separate customs territory Member of the WTO”

(ii) “domiciled”; “real and effective industrial and commercial establishment”

 
III. Article 2 and Incorporated Provisions of the Paris Convention (1967)    back to top

A. Text of Article 2
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 2 and Incorporated Provisions of the Paris Convention (1967)

1. Article 2.1 of the TRIPS Agreement

2. Article 2(1) of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

3. Article 2(2) of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

4. Article 3 of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

5. Article 6 of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

6. Article 6bis of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

7. Article 6ter of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

8. Article 6quinquies of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

9. Article 8 of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

10. Article 10(2) of the Paris Convention (1967) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

11. Article 2.2 of the TRIPS Agreement

 
IV. Article 3    back to top

A. Text of Article 3
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 3

1. Article 3.1

(a) “Each Member”

(b) “the nationals of other Members”

(c) “treatment no less favourable”

(d) “own nationals”

(e) “with respect to the protection of intellectual property”

(f) Footnote 3

(g) Notification requirements

2. Relationship with other Articles

3. Relationship with other WTO Agreements

 
V. Article 4    back to top

A. Text of Article 4
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 4

1. General

2. Chapeau

(a) “the protection of intellectual property”

(b) “any advantage, favour, privilege or immunity granted by a Member”

(c) “immediately and unconditionally”

(d) “to the nationals of any other country”

3. Article 4(d)

(a) Notification requirements

4. Footnote 3

 
VI. Article 5    back to top

A. Text of Article 5
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 5

1. Notification

 
VII. Article 6    back to top

A. Text of Article 6
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 6

 
VIII. Article 7    back to top

A. Text of Article 7
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 7

1. Relationship with other Articles

 
IX. Article 8    back to top

A. Text of Article 8
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 8

1. Article 8.1

2. Relationship with other Articles

 
X. Article 9 and Incorporated Provisions of the Berne Convention (1971)    back to top

A. Text of Article 9
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 9 and Incorporated Provisions of the Berne Convention (1971)

1. Relationship with the Berne Convention (1971)

2. Article 5(1) of the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

(a) Scope of Article 5(1)

3. Article 11 of the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

(a) Scope of Article 11

(b) Paragraph 1

(c) Relationship between Article 11 of the Berne Convention (1971) and other Articles of this Convention.

4. Article 11bis of the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

(a) Paragraph 1

(b) Paragraph 2

(c) Relationship between Article 11bis of the Berne Convention (1971) and other Articles of the Convention

(d) Minor exceptions doctrine

(e) Relationship between Article 11bis(2) of the Berne Convention (1971) and Article 13 of the TRIPS Agreement

5. Article 17 of the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

(a) Scope of Article 17

6. Article 20 of the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

7. Appendix to the Berne Convention (1971) as incorporated in the TRIPS Agreement

 
XI. Article 10    back to top

A. Text of Article 10
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 10

 
XII. Article 11    back to top

A. Text of Article 11
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 11

 
XIII. Article 12    back to top

A. Text of Article 12
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 12

 
XIV. Article 13    back to top

A. Text of Article 13
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 13

1. General

(a) Scope

(b) Relationship with other Articles

(c) “certain special cases”

(d) “do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work”

(e) “do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder”

 
XV. Article 14    back to top

A. Text of Article 14
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 14

 
XVI. Article 15    back to top

A. Text of Article 15
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 15

1. Article 15.1

2. Article 15.2

 
XVII. Article 16    back to top

A. Text of Article 16
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 16

1. General

2. Article 16.1

(a) “The owner”

(b) “The exclusive right”

(c) “a likelihood of confusion shall be presumed”

(d) “making rights available on the basis of use”

 
XVIII. Article 17    back to top

A. Text of Article 17
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 17

1. General

(a) “Limited exceptions”

(b) “such as fair use of descriptive terms”

(c) “legitimate interests”

(d) “take account of the legitimate interests of the owner of the trademark”

(e) “legitimate interests of … third parties”

(f) Burden of Proof

(g) Relationship with other Articles

 
XIX. Article 18    back to top

A. Text of Article 18
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 18

 
XX. Article 19    back to top

A. Text of Article 19
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 19

 
XXI. Article 20    back to top

A. Text of Article 20
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 20

 
XXII. Article 21    back to top

A. Text of Article 21
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 21

 
XXIII. Article 22    back to top

A. Text of Article 22
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 22

1. General

2. Article 22.1

(a) “In respect of”

(b) “geographical indications”

3. Article 22.2

(a) “Members”

(b) “Interested parties”

(c) No right of objection in Article 22.2

4. Article 22.3

5. Relationship with other Articles

(a) Relationship with Article 16.1

(b) Relationship with Article 24.5

 
XXIV. Article 23    back to top

A. Text of Article 23
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 23

1. General

2. Article 23.1

3. Article 23.2

4. Article 23.4

5. Relationship with other Articles

 
XXV. Article 24    back to top

A. Text of Article 24
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 24

1. Article 24.2

2. Article 24.3

(a) “In implementing this Section”

(b) “the protection of geographical indications that existed in that Member”

(c) “the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement”

3. Article 24.5

(a) “the eligibility for or the validity of the registration of a trademark” and “the right to use a trademark”

(b) “this Section”

 
XXVI. Article 25    back to top

A. Text of Article 25
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 25

 
XXVII. Article 26    back to top

A. Text of Article 26
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 26

1. Article 26.2

 
XXVIII. Article 27    back to top

A. Text of Article 27
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 27

1. Article 27.1

(a) “Without discrimination”

(b) “the field of technology”

2. Article 27.3

3. Relationship with other Articles


XXIX. Article 28    back to top

A. Text of Article 28
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 28

 
XXX. Article 29    back to top

A. Text of Article 29
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 29

 
XXXI. Article 30    back to top

A. Text of Article 30
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 30

1. General

2. “limited exceptions”

3. “do not unreasonably conflict with a normal exploitation of the patent”

4. “do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the patent owner, taking account of the legitimate interests of third parties”

5. Relationship with other Articles

 
XXXII. Article 31    back to top

A. Text of Article 31
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 31

 
XXXIII. Article 32    back to top

A. Text of Article 32
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 32

 
XXXIV. Article 33    back to top

A. Text of Article 33
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 33

1. General

(a) Basic structure

(b) Relationship with other Articles

 
XXXV. Article 34    back to top

A. Text of Article 34
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 34

 
XXXVI. Article 35 and Incorporated Provisions of the IPIC Treaty    back to top

A. Text of Article 35
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 35 and Incorporated Provisions of the IPIC Treaty

 
XXXVII. Article 36    back to top

A. Text of Article 36
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 36

 
XXXVIII. Article 37    back to top

A. Text of Article 37
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 37

 
XXXIX. Article 38    back to top

A. Text of Article 38
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 38

 
XL. Article 39    back to top

A. Text of Article 39
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 39

 
XLI. Article 40    back to top

A. Text of Article 40
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 40

 
XLII. Article 41    back to top

A. Text of Article 41
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 41

1. General

2. Article 41.1

3. Article 41.2

4. Article 41.3

5. Relationship between Article 41 and other Articles of the TRIPS Agreement and the Berne Convention

 
XLIII. Article 42    back to top

A. Text of Article 42
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 42

1. “right holders”

2. Rights covered by Article 42

 
XLIV. Article 43    back to top

A. Text of Article 43
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 43

 
XLV. Article 44    back to top

A. Text of Article 44
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 44

 
XLVI. Article 45    back to top

A. Text of Article 45
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 45

 
XLVII. Article 46    back to top

A. Text of Article 46
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 46

1. General

 
XLVIII. Article 47    back to top

A. Text of Article 47
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 47

 
XLIX. Article 48    back to top

A. Text of Article 48
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 48

 
L. Article 49    back to top

A. Text of Article 49
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 49

 
LI. Article 50    back to top

A. Text of Article 50
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 50

 
LII. Article 51    back to top

A. Text of Article 51
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 51

1. General

2. Scope

 
LIII. Article 52    back to top

A. Text of Article 52
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 52

 
LIV. Article 53    back to top

A. Text of Article 53
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 53

 
LV. Article 54    back to top

A. Text of Article 54
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 54

 
LVI. Article 55    back to top

A. Text of Article 55
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 55

 
LVII. Article 56    back to top

A. Text of Article 56
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 56

 
LVIII. Article 57    back to top

A. Text of Article 57
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 57

 
LIX. Article 58    back to top

A. Text of Article 58
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 58

 
LX. Article 59    back to top

A. Text of Article 59
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 59

1. “infringing goods”

2. “shall have the authority”

3. “disposal

4. “the principles set out in Article 46”

(a) General

(b) Principle in the first sentence of Article 46: “outside the channels of commerce in such a manner as to avoid any harm caused to the right holder”

(c) Principle in the fourth sentence of Article 46: “simple removal of the trademark unlawfully affixed”

 
LXI. Article 60    back to top

A. Text of Article 60
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 60

1. Relationship with other Articles

 
LXII. Article 61    back to top

A. Text of Article 61
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 61

1. General

2. The first sentence of Article 61

(a) General

(b) “trademark counterfeiting or copyright piracy”

(c) “on a commercial scale”

3. Relationship with other Articles

 
LXIII. Article 62    back to top

A. Text of Article 62
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 62

1. Article 62.2

2. Article 62.4

 
LXIV. Article 63    back to top

A. Text of Article 63
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 63

1. Article 63.2

(a) Notification requirements

 
LXV. Article 64    back to top

A. Text of Article 64
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 64

1. Articles of the TRIPS Agreement invoked in panel and Appellate Body proceedings

2. Article 64.2 and 64.3

 
LXVI. Article 65    back to top

A. Text of Article 65
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 65

1. General

2. Article 65.4

(a) “an additional period of five years”

3. Article 65.5

(a) “changes … do not result in a lesser degree of consistency”

4. Relationship with other Articles

 
LXVII. Article 66    back to top

A. Text of Article 66
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 66

1. Article 66.1

(a) Extension of transition period

(b) Relationship with other Articles

2. Article 66.2

 
LXVIII. Article 67    back to top

A. Text of Article 67
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 67

 
LXIX. Article 68    back to top

A. Text of Article 68
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 68

1. Rules of procedure of the Council for TRIPS

2. Observer status

(a) Organizations granted observer status

(b) Organizations having ad hoc observer status

3. Cooperation with WIPO

 
LXX. Article 69    back to top

A. Text of Article 69
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 69

1. Notification requirements

 
LXXI. Article 70    back to top

A. Text of Article 70
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 70

1. General

(a) Relationship between Article 70.1 and 70.2

2. Article 70.1

(a) “acts which occurred before the date of application of the Agreement”

3. Article 70.2

(a) “subject matter existing at the date of application of this Agreement”

4. Article 70.8

(a) “a means by which applications for patents for such inventions can be filed”

5. Article 70.9

(a) “exclusive marketing rights”

(b) Least-developed country Members

6. Relationship with other Articles

(a) Relationship between Section 5 of Part II and Article 70.2

(b) Relationships between Articles 65 and 66 and Article 70.8 and 70.9

 
LXXII. Article 71    back to top

A. Text of Article 71
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 71

 
LXXIII. Article 72    back to top

A. Text of Article 72
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 72

 
LXXIV. Article 73    back to top

A. Text of Article 73
B. Interpretation and Application of Article 73

 
LXXV. Text of the Provisions of the Paris Convention (1967) Incorporated by Article 2.1 of the TRIPS Agreement    back to top

 
LXXVI. Text of the Provisions of the Berne Convention (1971) Incorporated by Article 9.1 of the TRIPS Agreement    back to top

 
LXXVII. Text of the Provisions of the IPIC Treaty Incorporated by Article 35 of the TRIPS Agreement    back to top

 
LXXVIII. Text of the Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health    back to top

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