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Cancún, Mexico - 2003

CANCÚN WTO MINISTERIAL 2003: BRIEFING NOTES

SOME FACTS AND FIGURES
Facts for the ‘Fifth’

All figures from the WTO unless source specified

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Contents
> Director-General’s letter to journalists
> The Doha Development Agenda
> Agriculture
> Services
> Market access, non-agricultural products
> Intellectual property (TRIPS)
> Trade and investment
> Trade and competition policy
> Transparency in government procurement
> Trade facilitation
> Rules: anti-dumping, subsidies
> Rules: regional agreements
> Dispute settlement
> Trade and environment
> Electronic commerce
> Small economies
> Trade, debt and finance
> Trade and technology transfer
> Technical cooperation
> Least-developed countries
> Special and differential treatment
> Implementation
> Members and accession
> Some facts and figures
> Jargon buster


World trade and output back to top
 Selected Indicators, 1948-2002

              Annual percentage change
  1948 1950 1973 1990 2000 2002 1948-73 1973-00 1948-02 1990-00

World merchandise exports

                   
Billion current $ 58 61 579 3,438 6,250 6,240 9.7 9.2 9.1 6.2

Billion constant 1990$

304 376 1797 3,438 6,726 6,836 7.4 5.0 5.9 6.9
Exports per capita, 1990$ 123 149 458 654 1,110 1,110 5.4 3.3 4.1 5.4

World exports of manufactures

                   
Billion current $ 22 23 348 2,390 4,630 11.7 10.1 6.8
Billion constant 1990$ 93 112 955 2,390 5,031 9.8 6.3 7.7
Exports per capita, 1990$ 38 44 244 455 831 7.8 4.6 6.2
World output
(Indices, 1990=100)
                   
Total merchandise production 16.9 18.4 64.3 100.0 126.5

5.5

2.5

2.4

-manufacturing output 10.9 12.8 60.3 100.0 130.2 7.1 2.9 2.7
GDP (billion, 1990$) 3,935 4,285 13,408 22,490 28,115 28,993 5.0 2.7 3.8 2.3
GDP per capita (1990$) 1,591 1,700 3,420 4,280 4,642 4,668 3.1 1.1 2.0 0.8
GDP (billion, current $, at market rates) a 775 4,908 22,490 31,398 32,128 8.4 7.1 7.4 3.4
World population (million)

2,473

2,521

3,920

5,255

6,057

6,211

1.9

1.6

1.7

1.4

Trade to GDP                    
Exports of goods and services, to GDP, at constant 1987 prices, %

8.0 14.9 19.8 29.2 29.0
Merchandise trade to GDP                    
at current prices 7.9 11.8 15.3 19.9 19.4        
at constant prices 8.8 13.4 15.3 23.9 23.6        

a Growth rates refer to 1950 instead of 1948.

Sources: Population: UN World Population Prospects 2000 revision.
GDP, current: IMF World Economic Outlook. April 2003.
GDP, 1987 prices: World Bank and WTO.
Trade: WTO International Trade Statistics 2002 and World Trade Report 2003

 

World trade and output growth by sector, 2001 back to top

Annual percentage change in volume

  Exports Output
Manufactures -2.7 -1.6
Agricultural products

1.5

0.4

Mining products 1.5 0.1
Total merchandise -1.4 -1
GDP   1.5

Source: WTO International Trade Statistics 2002

 

World exports of merchandise and commercial services, 1990-2002 back to top

Billion dollars and percentage

 

Value

Annual percentage change

 

2002

1990-00

1999

2000

2001

2002

Merchandise

6240

6.0

4.0

13.0

-4.0

4.0

Commercial services

1540

7.0

3.0

6.0

-1.0

5.0

Source: WTO

 

Least-developed countries (LDCs), merchandise exports by selected country group, 1990-2002 back to top

Billion dollars and percentage

  Value Annual percentage change
  2002 1990-2000 2000 2001 2002
Total LDCs 38.0 7.0 26.0 1.0 4.0
Oil exporters (4) a 14.0 11.0 64.0 -10.0 8.0
Exporters of manufactures (8) b 12.0 15.0 24.0 5.0 -1.0
Commodity exporters (31) 10.0 2.0 -7.0 16.0 4.0
LDCs with civil strife (6) c 1.0 -9.0 -12.0 8.0 -2.0
World 6,240 6.0 13.0 -4.0 4.0

a  Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan and Yemen.
b  Bangladesh, Cambodia, Haiti, Lao People’s Dem. Rep., Lesotho, Madagascar, Myanmar and Nepal.
c  Afghanistan, Burundi, Congo Dem. Rep, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Somalia.

Source: WTO

 

Developing economies’ trade and output growth, 1990-2002 back to top

Annual percentage change

 

Developing economies

World

 

2000

2001

2002

1990-2000

1990-2000

GDP

5.5

2.0

3.0

5.0

3.0

Merchandise export volume

14.0

0.0

7.0

9.0

6.5

Merchandise import volume

16.0

0.0

6.0

8.5

6.5

Merchandise export value

23.5

-6.5

6.0

9.0

6.0

Merchandise import value

20.0

-4.0

4.0

8.5

6.5

Source: WTO

 

Latin America — merchandise trade, 1990-2002 back to top

Billion dollars and percentage

     

Annual percentage change

 

Total merchandise exports
2002

Total merchandise imports
2002

Exports growth 1990-2000

Exports growth 2002

Imports growth 1990-2000

Imports growth 2002

Latin America

351.5

355.1

9.5

1.0

11.5

-7.0

Mexico

160.8

176.5

15.0

1.5

15.5

0.0

maquiladoras

78.0

59.3

19.0

1.5

19.5

3.0

ANDEAN (5)

52.7

42.4

6.5

0.0

8.5

-9.0

MERCOSUR (4)

88.5

62.1

6.0

1.0

12.0

-26.0

Source: WTO

 

Acceding countries’ merchandise trade: Cambodia and Nepal, 1990-2002 back to top

Million dollars and percentage

     

Annual percentage change

 

Merchandise exports
2002

Merchandise imports
 
2002

Exports growth 1990-2000

Exports growth 2002

Imports growth 1990-2000

Imports growth 2002

Cambodia

1,379

1,968

31.0

0.0

26.0

14.0

Nepal

645

1,394

15.02

-13.0

9.0

-5.0

Source: WTO

 

GATT/WTO: 50 years of tariff reductions back to top

MFN tariff reduction of industrial countries for industrial products, excluding petroleum

Implementation period

Round covered

Weighted tariff reduction

1948-63

First five GATT rounds (1947-62) a

-36

1968-72

Kennedy Round (1964-67) b

-37

1980-87

Tokyo Round (1973-1979) c

-33

1995-99

Uruguay Round (1986-94) d

-38

Note: Tariff reductions for the first five trade rounds refer to US only

a Source: US Tariff Commission, Operations of the Trade Agreements Program, 1st to 13th report covering June 1934 to June 1960

b Refers to four markets: US, Japan, EC(6), and UK. Source: Ernest H Preeg, Traders and Diplomats, Tables 13-1 to 13-4 and WTO calculations based on 1964 import values

c Refers to eight markets: US, EU(9), Japan, Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland Source: GATT, COM.TD/W/315, 4.7.1980, p.20-21 and WTO calculations

d Refers to eight markets: US, EU(12), Japan, Austria, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland. Source: GATT, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, November 1994, Appendix Table 5 and WTO calculations

 

FDI flows and global integration back to top

  • Global FDI inflows amounted to $735 billion in 2001 and are estimated to have declined to $534 billion in 2002.
  • FDI inflows dropped by 59% in developed countries and 14% in developing countries in 2001 following a 16% annual growth between 1973 and 2000.
  • Global FDI outward stock rose nearly 6 fold between 1990 and 2001 reaching $6.6 trillion in 2001.
  • Cross-border mergers & acquisitions valued $594 billion in 2001, over 4 times the average of $145 billion during 1990-94.
  • FDI inflows to developing and transition economies rose to 28% and 4% in 2001 compared to 18% and 2% in 1999/2000.
  • FDI flows to Africa rose from $9 billion in 2000 to more than $17 billion in 2001.

Source: UNCTAD, World Investment Report 2001 and 2002

 

Global benefits from cuts in trade protection back to top

There are a number of published studies that examine the potential impact of trade liberalization in general and specific elements of the Doha Development Agenda in particular. Comparing them systematically is impossible because researchers have used a wide range of methods and data. Nevertheless, a number of consistent results across these studies provide an insight into the economic potential of trade negotiations.

  • The largest share of benefits from liberalization typically goes to the country that liberalizes.
  • Most developing countries would gain from a broader market access package of trade liberalization.
  • If tariffs are eliminated completely, the range of estimated economic benefits (“welfare gains”) is $80—$500 billion. Estimates of the share going to developing countries are in the range 40—60%.
  • What if trade-distorting agricultural policies are eliminated completely, i.e. domestic support, export subsidies and tariffs? The range of estimated gains is $8-$10 billion. (These estimates are net totals since some countries stand to lose from the elimination.)
  • If export subsidies are removed, some developing countries stand to lose because their imports will become more expensive compared with other products. However, their losses can be compensated by their gains if all countries liberalize appropriately on the market access side.
  • In the agriculture negotiations, tariff liberalization is the largest source of gains for developing countries as a group.
  • The gains from services trade liberalization are estimated to be between two to four times the gains from merchandise trade liberalization.
  • The gains from trade facilitation are estimated to be 2-5% of the value of trade and 50-100% of the gains from merchandise trade liberalization.
  • It is estimated that $81.1 billion of developing-country imports are affected by export cartels.

For more information, a selection of studies on trade liberalization:

  • International Monetary Fund (2002) World Economic Outlook, September, Washington, IMF.
  • Levenstein, M. C., and Suslow, V., “Private International Cartels and The Effect on Developing Countries”. Background Paper to the World Bank’s World Development Report 2001, Washington, D.C., 2001.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2001), “Business benefits of trade facilitation”, TD/TC/WP (2001) 21/Final, Paris, OECD.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (2003), “The Doha Development Agenda: welfare gains from further multilateral trade liberalization with respect to tariffs”, TD/TC/WP (2003) 10/Final, Paris, OECD.
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2003), Back to basics: market access issues in the Doha Agenda, Geneva, UNCTAD.
  • World Bank (2002), Global Economic Prospects 2002: making trade work for the world’s poor, Washington, World Bank.

 

Tariff rates in WTO members back to top

This is a selection of available data. Average bound rates are not included because of differences in the numbers of products that are bound. For more details, see the WTO’s World Trade Report for 2003: “Trade Development and the Opportunities of Doha”.

Import
markets

MFN bound tariffs

MFN applied tariffs

 

Last
year of imple-
menta-
tion

Binding coverage %

For all products

Agri-
culture

Non-
agri.

 

Agri-
culture

Last year
of implemen-
tation

Non-
agricul-
ture

Year

Duty-
free%

Non-ad valorem %

Simple average

Simple average

Albania 2007 100.0 2009 100.0 2001 1.0 0.0 9.0 7.2
Angola 1995 100.0 1995 100.0
Antigua and
Barbuda*
2004 99.9 1999 97.6 2001 11.1 2.8 14.7 8.8
Argentina 2004 100.0 2003 100.0 2001 2.5 0.0 12.3 12.7
Armenia* 2001 70.3 0.0 7.2 2.3
Australia 2000 100.0 2000 96.5 2001 47.5 0.1 1.1 4.6
Bahrain* 1995 100.0 1995 71.0 2001 3.1 0.1 9.0 7.6
Bangladesh 2004 100.0 1997 3.0 1999 6.4 0.1 24.2 21.7
Barbados 2004 100.0 1995 97.6 2001 0.0 0.9 30.1 9.8
Belize* 1995 100.0 1995 97.7 2001 9.6 0.4 17.8 9.4
Benin* 1995 100.0 1995 30.1 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Bolivia 2000 100.0 1995 100.0 2002 3.9 0.0 10.0 9.3
Botswana 2000 99.7 2007 96.0 2001 51.1 14.2 8.7 5.3
Brazil 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 2.4 0.0 12.5 14.9
Brunei
Darussalam
1995 97.6 1995 95.0 2001 77.1 0.7 0.0 3.0
Bulgaria 2001 100.0 2010 100.0 2001 16.6 1.3 18.2 10.0
Burkina Faso* 1995 100.0 1995 29.9 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Burundi 1995 100.0 1995 9.9
Cameroon 1995 100.0 1995 0.1 2001 0.6 0.0 22.0 17.5
Canada 2004 100.0 2004 99.7 2001 38.7 2.9 3.0 4.3
Central African Rep.* 1995 100.0 1995 56.8 2002 0.6 0.1 22.3 17.4
Chad* 1995 100.0 1995 0.3 2002 0.6 0.1 22.3 17.4
Chile 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 0.6 0.0 8.0 7.9
China 2010 100.0 2010 100.0 2002 3.2 0.5 19.2 11.3
Colombia 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 1.0 0.0 14.8 11.8
Congo* 1995 100.0 1995 3.2 2002 0.6 0.1 22.3 17.4
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1995 100.0 1995 100.0
Costa Rica 2004 100.0 2005 100.0 2001 48.5 0.0 12.0 4.6
Côte d’Ivoire* 2004 100.0 1999 22.9 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Croatia 2007 100.0 2005 100.0 2001 31.4 2.4 11.6 5.7
Cuba 2004 100.0 2004 20.4 2002 5.8 0.0 10.6 10.9
Cyprus 2004 99.6 2004 83.9 2001 18.9 5.3 21.4 4.3
Czech Rep. 2000 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 19.2 0.0 10.0 4.2
Djibouti 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 1999 0.0 2.0 23.9 31.7
Dominica 2004 100.0 2004 94.0 2001 22.9 0.0 19.6 8.4
Dominican Rep. 2004 100.0 1995 100.0 2000 10.7 0.0 12.1 7.8
Ecuador 2001 100.0 2001 99.8 2000 2.0 0.0 14.5 11.5
Egypt* 2004 99.7 2004 98.7 2002 0.5 10.6 22.8 19.4
El Salvador 2004 100.0 2005 100.0 2000 48.2 0.0 10.6 6.5
Estonia 2004 100.0 2005 100.0 2002 93.5 0.0 12.2 0.1
European Union 2003 100.0 2004 100.0 2002 18.3 5.9 5.9 4.2
Fiji 2004 100.0 1995 45.0
FYR Macedonia 2001 0.6 1.5 19.1 11.7
Gabon 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 2000 1.9 0.0 21.8 17.4
Gambia 1995 100.0 1995 0.5
Georgia* 2006 100.0 2005 100.0 1999 0.0 0.2 11.9 10.4
Ghana 2004 100.0 2004 1.2 2000 13.5 0.0 20.1 13.8
Grenada 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 2001 5.7 56.3 23.0 17.7
Guatemala 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 1999 47.5 0.0 9.8 7.1
Guinea 1995 100.0 1995 29.6 1998 0.6 0.0 6.6 6.4
Guinea-Bissau* 1995 100.0 1995 97.4 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Guyana 1995 100.0 1999 100.0 2000 4.0 0.0 20.1 9.6
Haiti 1999 100.0 1999 87.6
Honduras 2001 100.0 2001 100.0 2000 0.0 0.0 10.9 6.7
Hong Kong, China 2000 100.0 2000 37.4 2002 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Hungary 2001 100.0 2002 95.8 2001 10.1 0.0 25.8 7.0
Iceland 2000 100.0 2000 94.2 2000 71.6 2.8 7.0 2.4
India 2004 100.0 2005 69.8 2001 1.1 5.2 37.0 30.5
Indonesia 2004 100.0 2005 96.1 2002 19.3 0.1 8.2 6.7
Israel 2004 98.5 2005 73.0 1999 40.8 18.2 15.9 4.0
Jamaica 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 1999 63.3 0.0 15.8 5.9
Japan 2004 100.0 2004 99.5 2001 45.2 6.5 7.1 2.7
Jordan 2010 100.0 2010 100.0 2001 18.5 0.2 20.7 13.8
Kenya 1995 100.0 1999 1.6 2001 3.1 0.0 20.1 16.6
Korea, Rep. 2004 99.1 2009 93.7 2001 4.9 0.5 45.5 7.5
Kuwait* 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 2002 12.5 2.1 1.7 3.9
Kyrgyz Rep. 2003 100.0 2005 99.9 2001 54.9 0.3 5.9 4.6
Latvia 2008 100.0 2008 100.0 1999 19.1 0.1 11.9 2.9
Lesotho 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 2001 51.1 14.2 8.7 5.3
Lithuania 2009 100.0 2009 100.0 2001 75.0 0.4 9.8 2.5
Macao, China 1995 100.0 1997 15.6 2001 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Madagascar 1995 100.0 1995 18.9 2000 33.6 0.0 5.7 5.7
Malawi 2004 100.0 1999 20.7 2000 3.8 0.0 14.8 13.2
Malaysia 2004 99.9 2005 81.2 2001 53.3 0.8 2.1 8.1
Maldives* 1995 100.0 1995 96.7 2002 0.1 0.1 18.2 20.5
Mali 1995 100.0 1995 31.6 1999 29.4 0.0 14.6 10.6
Malta 1995 100.0 1995 96.8 2001 16.7 0.1 4.0 5.8
Mauritania* 1995 100.0 1995 30.1 2001 8.5 0.0 12.9 10.6
Mauritius 1995 100.0 2005 5.3 2001 55.4 0.1 19.7 18.9
Mexico 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 0.8 0.8 23.4 17.1
Moldova* 2005 99.9 2005 100.0 2001 46.1 0.7 10.3 4.1
Mongolia 1999 100.0 2005 100.0
Morocco 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 1997 0.0 0.2 57.6 30.1
Mozambique* 1995 100.0 1995 0.5 2002 2.2 0.0 16.8 11.4
Myanmar 1995 100.0 1995 4.7 1996 3.0 0.0 8.5 5.1
Namibia 2000 99.7 2007 96.0 2001 51.1 14.2 8.7 5.3
New Zealand 2000 100.0 2000 99.9 1999 54.1 3.9 1.7 3.5
Nicaragua 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2002 49.1 0.0 9.1 4.1
Niger* 1995 100.0 1995 96.3 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Nigeria* 1995 100.0 1999 6.9 2002 0.0 0.5 53.9 26.3
Norway 2000 100.0 2004 100.0 2002 75.2 9.4 8.4 1.7
Oman 2006 100.0 2009 100.0 2001 5.0 0.0 10.2 5.0
Pakistan 2002 92.6 2004 36.9 2001 0.0 0.7 22.0 19.9
Panama 2006 100.0 2010 100.0 2001 3.4 0.0 15.1 7.7
Papua New Guinea* 2008 100.0 2006 100.0 2002 76.2 1.1 17.7 5.5
Paraguay 1995 100.0 1995 100.0 2001 2.2 0.0 12.1 13.2
Peru 2004 100.0 1995 100.0 1998 0.0 0.0 15.0 13.1
Philippines 2003 99.4 2005 61.8 2002 2.1 0.0 9.2 5.2
Poland 2000 99.9 2002 95.7 2001 4.8 3.6 41.9 10.1
Qatar* 1995 100.0 2009 100.0 2002 0.0 0.0 4.9 4.1
Romania 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 1999 2.6 0.0 112.0 16.2
Rwanda* 1995 100.0 1999 100.0 2001 7.5 0.2 13.0 9.4
Senegal* 2005 100.0 2005 100.0 2002 1.3 0.0 14.2 11.6
Sierra Leone 1995 100.0 2004 100.0
Singapore 2004 100.0 2004 64.5 2001 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Slovak Rep. 2000 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 19.2 0.0 9.9 4.2
Slovenia 2000 100.0 2003 100.0 2002 10.0 1.5 11.3 9.3
Solomon
Islands
1995 100.0 1995 100.0 1998 0.0 1.4 34.0 20.5
South Africa 2000 99.7 2007 96.0 2001 51.1 14.2 8.7 5.3
Sri Lanka 2000 100.0 2001 28.3 1998 18.4 0.6 25.1 8.8
St. Kitts and Nevis* 2004 100.0 2004 97.6 2001 23.5 0.4 12.6 8.8
St. Lucia 2004 100.0 2004 99.5 2001 40.0 0.0 14.8 8.0
St. Vincent and the Grenadines* 2004 100.0 2004 99.7 2001 8.5 0.2 15.6 8.9
Suriname* 2004 100.0 1999 15.1 2000 5.3 74.8 23.5 14.5
Swaziland 2000 99.7 2007 96.0 2001 51.1 14.2 8.7 5.3
Switzerland 2004 100.0 2004 99.7 2001 15.8 84.2 0.0 0.0
Chinese Taipei 2011 99.9 2011 100.0 2001 14.2 1.6 17.3 6.3
Tanzania* 1995 100.0 1995 0.1 2000 2.4 0.0 19.8 15.8
Thailand 2004 100.0 2005 70.9 1999 1.4 22.7 30.8 15.5
Togo 1995 100.0 1995 0.7 2001 1.2 0.0 14.0 11.7
Trinidad and
Tobago*
2004 100.0 1995 100.0 2002 44.2 0.1 15.7 6.7
Tunisia* 2005 98.8 2005 51.1 2002 10.2 0.0 77.8 27.1
Turkey 2004 100.0 2004 39.3 2001 16.3 1.7 42.2 5.5
Uganda 1995 100.0 1995 3.0 2001 16.1 0.0 12.4 8.5
United Arab
Emirates
1995 100.0 2009 100.0
United States 2003 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 30.7 0.2 4.7 3.8
Uruguay 2004 100.0 1995 100.0 2001 2.2 0.0 12.3 14.0
Venezuela 2004 100.0 2004 100.0 2001 0.6 0.0 14.8 12.1
Zambia 1995 100.0 1995 4.1 2001 14.2 1.4 18.4 13.4
Zimbabwe 2004 100.0 1995 9.0 2001 4.1 3.2 26.1 17.1

… indicates unavailable data.

* MFN applied data sourced from UNCTAD TRAINS database.

Source: WTO (2003), World Trade Report: Trade Development and the Opportunities of Doha, Geneva. WTO. See Appendix Tables IIB.1 - IIB.7 for more details and the Technical Notes for details on the calculation methodology.

 

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