Topics handled by WTO committees and agreements
Issues covered by the WTO’s committees and agreements

DISPUTE SETTLEMENT: MEMBERS

Appellate Body Members

The Appellate Body is composed of seven Members who are appointed by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) to serve for four-year terms. Each person may be reappointed for another four-year term. Terms are staggered, ensuring that not all Members begin and complete their terms at the same time.

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Disclaimer
The pages on this web site regarding the Appellate Body and the Appellate Body Secretariat are intended solely for information. These pages do not constitute an authoritative interpretation of the WTO Agreements, including the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes, or the Working Procedures for Appellate Review.

  

See also:
Press releases:
WTO appoints new Appellate Body member (24 May 2012)
WTO appoints two new Appellate Body members (18 November 2011)

WTO appoints two new Appellate Body members (19 June 2009)
WTO appoints four new Appellate Body members
(27 November 2007)
WTO appoints new Appellate Body member
(31 July 2006)
DG Lamy notes with sadness the passing of Appellate Body member Lockhart
(13 January 2006)
Chairman of the Appellate Body elected
(20 December 2005)
WTO appoints new Appellate Body member and reappoints three existing members
(7 November 2003)
WTO appoints new Appellate Body members
(25 September 2001)
WTO Completes appointment of Appellate Body members
(25 May 2000)
WTO announces appointments to Appellate Body
(29 November 1995)




From left to right: David Unterhalter, Ujal Singh Bhatia, Peter Van den Bossche, Yuejiao Zhang, Ricardo Ramírez-Hernández, Thomas R. Graham and Seung Wha Chang

Each Member of the Appellate Body is required to be a person of recognized authority, with demonstrated expertise in law, international trade and the subject-matter of the covered agreements generally. They are also required to be unaffiliated with any government and are to be broadly representative of the Membership of the WTO.

A Chairman is elected among the Members to serve a one-year term, which can be extended for an additional period of one year. The Chairman is responsible for the overall direction of Appellate Body business. The current Chairperson is Ricardo Ramírez-Hernández.

A Division of three Members is selected to hear each appeal; each Division elects a Presiding Member. The process for the selection of Divisions is designed to ensure randomness, unpredictability and opportunity for all Members to serve regardless of their national origin. To ensure consistency and coherence in decision-making, Divisions exchange views with the other Members of the Appellate Body before finalizing Appellate Body Reports.

The conduct of Members of the Appellate Body and of the Appellate Body Secretariat is regulated by the Rules of Conduct for the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU). These Rules emphasize that Appellate Body Members shall be independent, impartial, and avoid conflicts of interest. A copy of the Rules of Conduct can be found as Annex II to the Working Procedures for Appellate Review.

Members of the Appellate Body and their respective terms of office  back to top

Click on the name of each current Appellate Body Member to obtain that Member’s biography.
  

 

 Nationality
  

 Term of Office
  

Ujal Singh Bhatia

India

11 December 2011 to 10 December 2015

Peter Van den Bossche

Belgium

12 December 2009 to 11 December 2013
12 December 2013 to 11 December 2017

Seung Wha Chang

Korea 1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016

Thomas R. Graham

United States

11 December 2011 to 10 December 2015

Ricardo Ramírez-Hernández

Mexico

1 July 2009 to 30 June 2013
1 July 2013 to 30 June 2017

Yuejiao Zhang

China

1 June 2008 to 31 May 2012
1 June 2012 to 31 May 2016


  

Former Appellate Body Members  back to top

The following table provides a listing of the persons who have served on the Appellate Body in the past:

 

 Nationality
  

 Term of Office
  

Georges Michel Abi-Saab1

 Egypt

2000-2004
2004-2008

James Bacchus

United States

1995-1999
1999-2003

Luiz Olavo Baptista2

 Brazil

2001-2005
2005-2009

Lilia R Bautista

Philippines

2007-2011

Christopher Beeby

 New Zealand

1995-1999
1999-2000

Claus-Dieter Ehlermann

 Germany

1995-1997
1997-2001

Said El-Naggar

 Egypt

1995-1999
1999-2000

Florentino Feliciano

 Philippines

1995-1997
1997-2001

Arumugamangalam Venkatachalam Ganesan1

 India

2000-2004
2004-2008

Jennifer Hillman

United States

2007-2011

Merit E. Janow

United States

2003-2007

Julio Lacarte-Muró

 Uruguay

1995-1997
1997-2001

John Lockhart *

 Australia

2001-2005
2005-2006

Mitsuo Matsushita

 Japan

1995-1999
1999-2000

Shotaro Oshima

Japan

2008-2012

Giorgio Sacerdoti

 Italy

2001-2005
2005-2009

Yasuhei Taniguchi

 Japan

2000-2003
2003-2007

David Unterhalter

 South Africa

31 July 2006 to 11 December 2009
12 December 2009 to
11 December 2013

  

Arbitrations   back to top

Appellate Body  Members have also been called upon to determine, through binding arbitration under Article 21.3(c) of the DSU, the “reasonable period of time” for the implementation by a WTO Member of Appellate Body or panel rulings as recommended by the DSB.  In carrying out arbitrations under Article 21.3(c), Appellate Body Members act in an individual capacity.

 

Notes:
1.
Pursuant to Rule 15 of the Working Procedures for Appellate Review, Mr. Ganesan and Mr. Abi-Saab were authorized by the Appellate Body, upon notification to the Chairman of the DSB, to complete the disposition of the appeals in US — Shrimp (Thailand) (WT/DS343/R), US — Customs Bond Directive (WT/DS345/R), US — Continued Suspension (WT/DS320/R), and Canada — Continued Suspension (WT/DS321/R). Mr. Ganesan and Mr. Abi-Saab continue to serve as Appellate Body Members until such time as the aforementioned appeals are completed. Consequently, Mr. Ganesan and Mr. Abi-Saab continued to serve as Appellate Body Members until, respectively, 16 July 2008 and 16 October 2008.
2. In a communication dated 12 November 2008 (WT/DSB/46), Mr. Baptista informed the Chairman of the DSB that, owing to health reasons, he was compelled to resign from the office of Appellate Body Member. His term of office therefore expired in February 2009.

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