SUBJECT INDEX BY CASE: APPELLATE BODY REPORTS

C-D

 

Index:  A  B  C-D  E-F  G-H  I  J  K-L  M-S  T  U-Z 


ON THIS PAGE:

Canada — Aircraft
Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil)
Canada — Autos
Canada — Dairy
Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US)
Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US II)
Canada — Patent Term
Canada — Periodicals
Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports
Chile — Alcoholic Beverages
Chile — Price Band System
Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.5 — Argentina)
China — Auto Parts
China — Publications and Audiovisual Products
Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes


Canada — Aircraft (WT/DS70/AB/R)     back to top

burden of proof B.3.1.8

prima facie case B.3.2.4

panel ruling in favour, need for B.3.2.4

refusal to provide information, relevance B.3.2.4

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), completion of legal analysis, factual basis, limitation to panel’s findings or undisputed facts in panel record S.3.1.4

confidentiality of proceedings (DSU 17.10/DSU 18.2)

applicability to individuals on Members’ delegations (including non-government employees) B.4.2-3, C.6.2

Members’ responsibility for ensuring compliance C.6.2-3

business confidential information

additional procedures, need for B.4.1-3

Procedures Governing Business Confidential Information B.4.2, W.2.6.3-5

closed session meetings B.4.3

“proceedings” (DSU 17.10) C.6.1

Rules of Conduct, Art. VII:1 and, applicability, AB Members B.4.3, C.6.2, W.2.4.1

evidence (panel procedures) (DSU 12), refusal of party to provide information, effect, burden of proof and B.3.2.4

inferences from party’s refusal to provide information, panel’s right to draw I.1.1-2

obligation to respond promptly to panel’s requests for information and (DSU 13.1) I.1.1, S.4.9-10

panel’s discretion and I.1.1

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13)

burden of proof and B.3.2.4

obligation to respond fully and promptly (DSU 13.1) I.1.1, S.4.8, S.4.9

refusal to provide, panel’s right to draw inferences I.1.1-2

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), effect on I.1.1-2

prompt and satisfactory resolution of disputes, Members’ right to (DSU 3), refusal of party to provide information, effect I.1.1-2

Rules of Conduct, applicability to AB Members B.4.3, C.6.2, W.2.4.1

subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.12.1-2

burden of proof

de facto B.3.1.8

de jure B.3.1.8

“contingent” S.2.12.1

“in law or in fact” S.2.12.2

“in fact” S.2.14.1-2

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a), footnote 4) S.2.12.2A

Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9)

confidentiality (Rules of Conduct, Art. VII:1) B.4.3, C.6.2, W.2.4.1

Rules of Conduct, applicability (WP 8) B.4.3, C.6.2, W.2.4.1

 
Canada — Aircraft (Article 21.5 — Brazil) (WT/DS70/AB/RW)     back to top

“measures taken to comply” (including panel’s determination of WTO consistency), measure subject of original dispute distinguished R.4.2.1

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5) R.4.1.1-2

determination of consistency of measure with WTO obligations R.4.2.1

“measures taken to comply” (including panel’s determination of WTO consistency) R.4.1.1-2

examination on basis of facts proved during panel proceedings R.4.1.2

measure subject of original dispute distinguished R.4.1.1, R.4.1.2

as new claim / reassertion of old R.4.2.1

“should ensure” requirement R.4.1.2

subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.12.3-4

burden of proof

export-orientation of recipient, relevance S.2.12.4

knowledge or expectation, sufficiency S.2.12.4

“in law or in fact” S.2.12.3

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) S.2.9.1-2

“benefit” S.2.9.2

recipient, need for S.2.9.1

 
Canada — Autos (WT/DS139/AB/R, WT/DS142/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis C.4.9-10

in case of panel’s failure to examine applicability of covered agreement G.1.1.7

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.9-10

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), correct interpretation and application of covered agreements and M.2.2.4

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

judicial economy and J.1.10

panel’s obligation to address issues raised by parties (DSU 7.2/12.7) J.1.9

EC — Bananas III (WT/DS27/AB/R), MFN treatment (GATT I) M.2.1.2-4

GATS, applicability (GATS I) G.1.1.3-7

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1)

“affecting” (GATS I:1) G.1.1.4

wholesale trade service suppliers in their capacity as service suppliers, need to examine G.1.1.5-7, M.2.2.4

“trade in services” (GATS I:2) G.1.1.4

order of analysis (applicability of GATS / determination of consistency) G.1.1.3, G.1.1.5-7, M.2.2.3, O.2.4

interpretation of covered agreements

absence of provision, relevance S.2.16.1

object and purpose M.2.1.4

same or closely related phrases in different agreements S.2.16.1

judicial economy J.1.9-10

due process and J.1.10

inter-dependent assumptions, reliance on O.2.4

panel’s discretionary power to determine

which claims must be examined J.1.10

obligation to address claims not examined J.1.10

MFN treatment (GATS II) M.2.2.3-4

determination of violation, requirements

comparison with like services M.2.2.3

measure covered by GATS M.2.2.3

MFN treatment (GATT I)

“advantage” (GATT I:1) M.2.1.2-3

de facto discrimination M.2.1.2-3

object and purpose M.2.1.4

order of analysis, GATS I:1 (applicability of GATS / determination of consistency) G.1.1.3, G.1.1.5-7, M.2.2.3, O.2.4

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) G.1.1.5-7, M.2.2.4

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “objective assessment of matter before it”, all facts, need to consider G.1.1.5

subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“contingent upon export performance” (SCM 3.1(a))

“in law”

implied provision S.2.13.1

“tied to” (SCM 3.1(a), footnote 4) S.2.13.3-4

“in law or in fact”, “in law” S.2.13.1-4

“contingent upon the use of domestic over imported products” (SCM 3.1(b)) S.2.15.1-2

“in law” S.2.15.1-2

implied provision S.2.15.1

“in law or in fact”, omission, relevance S.2.16.1

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

exemption from or remission of internal taxes upon exportation (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii), footnote 1) S.2.5.1

forgoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)), “otherwise due” / basis of comparison (“but for” test) S.2.4.3

tax exemption, as circumvention of export subsidy commitments S.2.5.1

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7)

obligations

to address relevant provisions in covered agreement[s] cited by parties (DSU 7.2) J.1.9

to make such findings as will assist the DSB (DSU 7.1) J.1.9

 
Canada — Dairy (WT/DS103/AB/R, WT/DS103/AB/R/Corr.1, WT/DS113/AB/R, WT/DS113/AB/R/Corr.1)     back to top

“government” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16.1

“government agency” (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.16.1

interpretation of covered agreements

dictionaries A.1.16.1, A.1.17.1-2

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat / effet utile) I.3.7.4

meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase I.3.7.4

ordinary meaning T.1.1.3

supplementary means (VCLT 32) I.3.10.9

in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) I.3.10.9

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.17.1-2

“by virtue of” A.1.26.1-2

governmental action as a whole A.1.26.1-2

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.26.2

“financed” / “a charge”, relevance A.1.17.1-2

payment-in-kind (AG 9.1(a)) A.1.15.1, A.1.17.1-2

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II) T.1.1.3

“subject to” (GATT II:1(b)) T.1.1.3

“terms, conditions or qualifications … in Schedule” T.1.1.3

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

commonality of terminology in Agreement on Agriculture A.1.3.1

conferral of benefit (SCM 1.1(b)) A.1.3.1

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1)) A.1.3.1

forgoing of revenues otherwise due (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(ii)) A.1.3.1

transfer of economic resources from grantor to recipient for less than full consideration A.1.3.1, A.1.15.1

 
Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US) (WT/DS103/AB/RW, WT/DS113/AB/RW)     back to top

Agreement on Agriculture (AG)

interpretation, context (VCLT 31(2)), SCM Agreement A.1.20.7

SCM Agreement and, primacy of AG (SCM 3.1), AG 13(c)(ii) and A.1.38.1

burden of proof

completion of legal analysis and C.4.15

reversal in respect of circumvention of export subsidy commitments (AG 10.3) A.1.34.1, B.3.4.1-2

budgetary outlay and quantity commitments distinguished B.3.4.2

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis C.4.15-16

burden of proof and C.4.15

in case of disagreement with panel C.4.15

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.15-16

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13), inability to rule, effect C.4.16

cost of production (AG), measurement

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.8-9

of products for both domestic and export markets A.1.20.9

marginal cost A.1.20.8

profits as A.1.20.8

domestic support commitments (AG 6)

domestic support, right to provide (AG 3) A.1.20.2

domestic support / export subsidy regimes, need to maintain distinction (AG 3) A.1.20.1-10, A.1.36.1

cost of production test and A.1.20.1-10, A.1.36.1

spill-over effect of permitted domestic support A.1.20.3-5, A.1.36.1

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1)

“export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”

mutual exclusion A.1.31.1

residual nature A.1.31

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3) A.1.20.2

in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level A.1.20.2

interpretation of covered agreements, absence of provision, relevance A.1.18.3, A.1.18.4

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.24.1

average total cost including fixed and variable costs A.1.20.9-10

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

absence of express provision, relevance A.1.18.3, A.1.18.4

domestic market (AG 9.1(b) and (e)) A.1.18.3

domestic price fixed by government A.1.18.5, A.1.20.4

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.18.4

market rate, relevance A.1.18.5

objective standard, need for A.1.18.2

world market price A.1.19.1-2

“by virtue of” A.1.24.1

nexus, need for A.1.27.2

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.18.4, A.1.27.2

cost of production, failure to recoup as A.1.20.1-10, A.1.36.1

SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies, items (j) and (k) and A.1.20.7, S.2.39.1

“financed” A.1.24.1, A.1.27.1-3

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.1

forgone income as A.1.18.1

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.27.3, S.2.8.1

AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished S.2.8.1

“governmental action” A.1.24.1

rationale A.1.20.7, S.2.39.1

subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II)

“except as provided in the Agreement on Agriculture” (SCM 3.1(a)) S.2.11.1

Agreement on Agriculture as primary test S.2.11.1

Illustrative List of Export Subsidies (SCM Annex I)

export credit guarantee or insurance (item (j)) S.2.39.1

export credits at rates below actual cost of funds so employed (item (k)) A.1.20.7

failure to cover long-term operating costs and losses (item (k)) A.1.20.7

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1))

payments to a funding mechanism or entrustment or direction to a private body (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)) S.2.8.1

private party payments under the Agreement on Agriculture (AG 9.1(c)) distinguished S.2.8.1

 
Canada — Dairy (Article 21.5 — New Zealand and US II) (WT/DS103/AB/RW2, WT/DS113/AB/RW2)     back to top

burden of proof B.3.1.14

cost of production (AG), measurement A.1.22.4

onus probandi actori incumbit as general principle of evidence A.1.34.2, A.1.34.6, A.1.34.8, B.3.1.14

presumption of consistency of measure with WTO obligations A.1.34.2, B.3.1.14

prima facie case B.3.1.14

reversal in respect of circumvention of export subsidy commitments (AG 10.3) A.1.34.2-8

AG 10.3 as special procedural provision A.1.34.3

budgetary outlay and quantity commitments distinguished A.1.34.4, A.1.34.5-7

“establish” A.1.34.6

claim, as defensive action (AG 10.3) A.1.34.2

cost of production (AG 9.1(c)), measurement

average actual cost including fixed and variable costs, disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market A.1.27.4-5

burden of proof A.1.22.4

depreciation and A.1.22.4

equity investment A.1.22.4

GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) and A.1.22.4

imputed costs A.1.22.1-4

non-monetary costs A.1.22.4

opportunity costs A.1.22.2, A.1.22.3

profits as A.1.22.2

quota costs A.1.23.1

“reasonable” objective methodology A.1.22.4

selling costs A.1.23.1

domestic support, right to provide (AG 3)

domestic support commitments (AG 6), export subsidy disciplines, applicability A.1.28.1

domestic support / export subsidy regimes, need to maintain distinction (AG 3) A.1.28.1

spill-over effect of permitted domestic support A.1.26.5-8

export subsidy commitments, prevention of circumvention (AG 10.1), “export subsidies not listed in Article 9.1”, mutual exclusion A.1.33.1

export subsidy, prohibition (AG 3.3), in excess of budgetary outlay and quantity commitment level, quantitative and export subsidization commitments distinguished A.1.34.4-7

interpretation of covered agreements, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat / effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase A.1.24.1, A.1.27.4

payments on export of agricultural product financed by virtue of governmental action (AG 9.1(c)) A.1.24.2

benchmark/standard (AG 9.1(c))

factual and regulatory setting, relevance A.1.24.2

industry-wide cost of production A.1.21.1

“by virtue of” A.1.26.3-8

government control, relevance A.1.26.5

motive of government, relevance A.1.28.1

nexus, need for A.1.26.3-4, A.1.27.4

regulatory framework, relevance A.1.26.8

cross-subsidization and A.1.28.1

“financed”

disproportionate attribution of fixed costs to more remunerative market and A.1.27.4-5

“whether or not a charge on the public account” A.1.27.4

“financing” as mechanism or process A.1.27.4

government mandate or direction, relevance A.1.25.3

AG 9.1(e), SCM 1.1 and SCM Illustrative List of Export Subsidies distinguished A.1.25.3 n. 113

“governmental action” A.1.24.2, A.1.25.2

act or omission as A.1.25.2

single or series of acts/omissions A.1.25.2

payments by private parties as A.1.24.2, A.1.25.1-4

Member State responsibility and A.1.25.1

State responsibility, funding of export subsidy by private parties A.1.25.1

subsidy, definition (SCM 1)

“direct subsidies, including payments-in-kind” (AG 9.1(a)), payment-in-kind A.1.22.1

financial contribution (SCM 1.1(a)(1)), payments to a funding mechanism (SCM 1.1(a)(1)(iv)), private party payments under the Agreement on Agriculture (AG 9.1(c)) distinguished A.1.25.3

 
Canada — Patent Term (WT/DS170/AB/R)     back to top

non-retroactivity of treaties (VCLT 28) P.3.4.3-4

continuing measures P.3.4.3

pre-existing rights, TRIPS Agreement T.9.9.1, T.9.12.1-5, T.9.13.1-3

TRIPS Agreement

existing rights, applicability to (TRIPS 70.2) P.3.4.4, T.9.9.1, T.9.13.1-3

acts occurring before date of application of TRIPS (TRIPS 70.1) distinguished P.3.4.4, T.9.11.1-2, T.9.12.1-5

patents, term of protection (TRIPS 33) T.9.7.1-4

acquisition (TRIPS 62.2) distinguished T.9.8.1

Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9), written responses (WP 28) W.2.12.6

 
Canada — Periodicals (WT/DS31/AB/R)     back to top

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact, determination of “likeness” S.3.3.1

completion of legal analysis C.4.2

factual basis, contentiousness/omission/insufficiency of facts C.4.2

upholding, modification or reversal of legal findings and conclusions (DSU 17.13), panel finding not appealed and P.1.2.1

directly competitive or substitutable products (GATT III:2), criteria, consumer preferences N.1.3.2.3

GATS, applicability (GATS I), GATT 1994, overlap G.2.2.1

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2)) S.2.42.1

object and purpose S.2.42.1

text/plain language S.2.42.1

“like product” (GATT III:2)

criteria N.1.3.2.3

determination on case-by-case basis N.1.3.2.3, S.3.3.1

determination as legal issue S.3.3.1

directly competitive or substitutable products distinguished N.1.3.1.3, N.1.5.2

narrow interpretation, need for S.3.3.1

national treatment, exceptions (GATT III:8), expenditure of revenue by government, limitation to (GATT III:8(b)) S.2.42.1

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

determination of violation, requirements

inconsistency of measure with GATT III:1 principles (including non-like products) N.1.2.2

“like product” status N.1.2.2

tax of imported product in excess of domestic product N.1.2.2

“directly or indirectly”

imported products N.1.2.1

like domestic products N.1.2.1

“not similarly taxed” N.1.7.3-4

threshold/de minimis differential N.1.7.3

subsidies, prohibited (SCM, Part II), national treatment and (GATT III:8(b)) S.2.42

 
Canada — Wheat Exports and Grain Imports (WT/DS276/AB/R)     back to top

burden of proof, party’s obligation to identify relevant provisions of legislation B.3.1.16, E.3.2.5

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

completion of legal analysis

in case of agreement with panel finding C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

request for, procedure C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

competence (panels)

objections, requirements

opportunity to cure procedural defect and R.2.1.9

timeliness O.1.9-12, R.2.1.7-9

DSB meetings to examine request, relevance O.1.12, R.2.1.8

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), objective assessment of matter before it C.5.3

conditional appeal, request for, procedure C.4.21, C.5.3, W.2.7B.1

due process (dispute settlement proceedings), opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties D.2.2.19

judicial economy, definition J.1.14

“matter referred to the DSB” (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1)

identification of specific issues and legal basis of claim/complaint as dual requirements (DSU 6.2) S.7.2A.1-2, W.2.7.5.5

“measure at issue” as W.2.7.5.5

notice of appeal, requirements (AB/WP 20(2))

right to defend interests and S.7.2A.1, W.2.7.5.5

statement of allegations of errors on issues of law / legal interpretations (AB/WP 20(2)(d)), allegation of panel’s failure to make objective assessment (DSU 11), need for specific reference S.7.2A.1

order of analysis

assumptions, panel’s right to use, clarity of use, need for O.2.8

failure to follow mandatory order O.2.6

GATT XVII:1(a)/GATT XVII:1(b) O.2.8, S.7A.3.4-7

omission of step O.2.7, O.2.8

panel’s right to determine O.2.8

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, opportunity to cure defect R.2.1.9

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”), party’s obligation to argue relevance of evidence B.3.1.16, E.3.2.5, S.7.2A.2

State trading enterprises (GATT XVII)

“adequate opportunity … to compete for participation in such purchases or sales” (GATT XVII:1(b)) S.7A.5.1-3

applicability to STEs of GATT provisions other than GATT XVII S.7A.1.4

prevention of discriminatory behaviour, limitation to S.7A.1.4

“commercial considerations” (GATT XVII:1(b)) S.7A.4.1-4

differential prices for commercial reasons, admissibility (GATT XVII:1, Ad Note) S.7A.2.1

insufficiency of GATT XVII:1 to prevent all obstacles to trade (GATT XVII:3) S.7A.6.1

obligation to comply with GATT principles of non-discriminatory treatment (GATT XVII:1(a)) S.7A.1

as anti-circumvention provision S.7A.1.1

discrimination and justifiable differentiation distinguished S.7A.1.2

GATT XVII:1(b) and S.7A.3.1-7

order of analysis O.2.8, S.7A.3.4-7

Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9)

amendment W.2.7A.1

appellee’s submission (WP 22), conditional request to complete analysis and W.2.7B.1

determination by Appellate Body (DSU 17.9) W.2.7A.1

Working Procedures (panel) (DSU 12.1 and Appendix 3), panel’s discretion O.1.9

 
Chile — Alcoholic Beverages (WT/DS87/AB/R, WT/DS110/AB/R)     back to top

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11)

correct interpretation and application of covered agreements and C.3.2.2

not to add to or diminish rights and obligations (DSU 3.2/19.2) C.3.2.2

national treatment, tax discrimination (GATT III:2)

Members’ right to determine basis of taxation subject to compliance with WTO obligations T.3.2

“not similarly taxed” N.1.7.5-6

assessment of differential N.1.7.5-6

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7) P.1.1.2

 
Chile — Price Band System (WT/DS207/AB/R)     back to top

Agreement on Agriculture (AG)

interpretation

conformity with other articles A.1.14.3

context (VCLT 31(2)), surrounding language A.1.14.3

effectiveness principle A.1.10.2, A.1.14.3

wording and grammar, respect for A.1.9.1

“any measures of the kind” (AG 4.2 and footnote 1) A.1.10.1-5

“converted into” A.1.10.3

“include” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) A.1.10.2

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6)

classification as issue of law or fact

compliance/consistency with treaty obligations S.3.3.10

Party’s classification of measure, relevance S.3.3.10

competence of panels and AB (DSU 3.2/DSU 11), right to develop own legal reasoning including arguments not adduced by parties (jura novit curia) C.2.3

conditional appeal C.5.2

customs duties

“ordinary customs duty” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.4, A.1.13.1

as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.7.1, A.1.13.2

due process (dispute settlement proceedings)

amendment of measures during proceedings D.2.2.17, R.2.3.10

opportunity to respond to evidence/presentations of other parties R.2.2.13-14, T.6.2.16-17

interpretation of covered agreements

conformity with other articles A.1.14.3

context (VCLT 31(2)), surrounding language A.1.14.3

effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat / effet utile), meaning to be attributed to every word and phrase A.1.10.1

grammar, respect for A.1.9.1

multiple authentic languages (VCLT 33) I.3.11.1

meaning which best reconciles texts (VCLT 33(4)) I.3.11.1

ordinary meaning A.1.10.1

subsequent practice which establishes parties’ agreement on interpretation (VCLT 31(3)(b)) I.3.9.3-4

common practice, need for I.3.9.3-4

consistency of practice, need for I.3.9.3

legal basis of claim (DSU 6.2) (request for establishment of panel) R.2.2.13-14

arguments distinguished C.1.8

implied claims, exclusion R.2.2.14, T.6.2.17

summary, sufficiency, reference to GATT II R.2.2.13-14, T.6.2.16-17

market access concessions and commitments (AG 4.1), “market access” A.1.7.1

measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

customs duties as preferred form of border protection A.1.7.1

failure to convert by due date, effect A.1.9.1

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) A.1.11.1

lower band threshold, relevance A.1.11.1

variable import levies distinguished A.1.11.1

“ordinary customs duty” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.4, A.1.13.1

similar border measures other than ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) A.1.12.1

“similar” A.1.12.1

tariff binding, relevance A.1.13.3

time-limit for conversion A.1.9.1

variable import levy” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) (including distinguishability from “ordinary customs duty”) A.1.10.3, A.1.11.1, A.1.13

“which have been required to be” (AG 4.2) A.1.9.1

notice of appeal, requirements (AB/WP 20(2)), statement of allegations of errors on issues of law / legal interpretations (AB/WP 20(2)(d)), legal argument in support of claim distinguished C.1.8, W.2.7.2.2

special safeguards (AG 5), measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2), relationship with A.1.14.3

“specific measure at issue” (AD 17.4/DSU 6.2)

identification as part of the matter referred to the DSB, need for (AD 17.4/DSU 7.1) R.2.3.9-10

amendment of measure during proceedings D.2.2.17, R.2.3.9-10, T.6.3.5-6

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

“objective assessment of matter before it” S.7.2.4

ultra petita finding on provision not before it S.7.2.4

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), as definition of jurisdiction / legal claims at issue, legal claim included in terms of reference, limitation of jurisdiction to C.2.3

third party rights T.8.6, W.2.9.6

AB proceedings (DSU 17.4/WP 24) W.2.9.6

passive participation in oral hearings W.2.9.6

panel proceedings (DSU 10 and Appendix 3), claims, exclusion T.8.6

 
Chile — Price Band System (Article 21.5 — Argentina) (WT/DS207/AB/RW)     back to top

burden of proof

allocation, panel’s obligation to specify allocation / moment of determination of allocation B.3.1.18-19, B.3.2.22, R.4.3.15-19

DSU 21.5 proceedings and B.3.1.18-19, B.3.2.22, R.4.3.15

onus probandi actori incumbit as general principle of evidence A.1.34.8, B.3.1.11, B.3.1.18, B.3.3.17-19, G.4.3.1, R.4.3.15

presumption of consistency of measure with WTO obligations, as general principle of evidence B.3.1.18, R.4.3.15

prima facie case

panel’s duty not to make case for complaining party R.4.3.15

text of legislation, sufficiency B.3.1.18, R.4.3.15

reversal in case of establishment of prima facie case B.3.1.18, R.4.3.15

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), issues of law / legal interpretations, new evidence / evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8-9

customs duties, transparency/predictability as distinguishing factor A.1.13.5, A.1.13.8-10

evidence (admissibility and evaluation in appellate proceedings) (DSU 17.6), new evidence / evidence not before panel E.3.3.1, S.3.1.8

interpretation of covered agreements, effectiveness principle (ut res magis valeat quam pereat / effet utile) A.1.14.4

measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2)

“any measures of the kind” (AG 4.2 and footnote 1) A.1.10.1-5

“converted into” A.1.10.5

minimum import price (AG 4.2, footnote 1) A.1.11.2-4

lower band threshold, relevance A.1.11.3-4

“minimum import price” (AG 4.2, footnote 1), variable import levies distinguished A.1.11.4

similar border measures other than ordinary customs duties” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) A.1.12.2-6

“other than ordinary customs duties” A.1.12.3-5

separate analysis, relevance A.1.12.5

variable import levy” (AG 4.2, footnote 1) (including distinguishability from “ordinary customs duty”) A.1.13.4-10

“which have been required to be” (AG 4.2) A.1.10.5

panel reports

adoption by DSB (DSU 16.4) R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

parties’ obligation to accept R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

rationale, need for (DSU 12.7)

party’s disagreement with rationale, relevance P.1.1.9

sufficiency to disclose essential or fundamental justification P.1.1.9

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5), finality of panel/AB report and R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

review of implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21.5), as a continuum of events R.4.3.15

special safeguards (AG 5), measures requiring conversion into ordinary customs duties (AG 4.2), relationship with A.1.14.4

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”)

discretion to select which evidence to refer to explicitly E.3.2.32, S.7.3.38

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence E.3.2.26, S.7.2.16, S.7.3.37-8

obligation to support findings from evidence in panel record E.3.2.26

party’s obligation to raise panel’s alleged factual misunderstanding at interim review stage or appeal S.7.2A.8

“objective assessment of matter before it” R.4.3.16, S.7.2A.8

error of law, burden of proof / prima facie case, failure to apply correctly B.3.1.18, B.3.2.22, R.4.3.15-16

Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9), working schedule (WP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances at request of parties, participants or third participants (WP 16(2)) W.2.10.1.5

 
China — Auto Parts (WT/DS339/AB/R, WT/DS340/AB/R, WT/DS342/AB/R)     back to top

accession protocols

trading rights commitments

enforceability A.0.1.1

interpretation in accordance with VCLT A.0.1.1

amicus curiae briefs, NGO/private individual briefs, discretionary power of panel to accept/reject A.2.1.16

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), classification as issue of law or fact, interpretation of municipal law M.5.17

Harmonized System of Customs Classification

as aid to interpretation of covered agreements H.1.8-11, T.1.2.14-15

WTO agreements, relationship with H.1.8

information or technical advice, panel’s right to seek (DSU 13), parties’ comments on information provided S.4.19

interpretation of covered agreements

context (VCLT 31(2))

any agreement made between the parties (VCLT 31(2)(a)) or accepted by parties (VCLT 31(2)(b))

Harmonized System of Customs Classification H.1.8-11, I.3.3.8, T.1.2.14-15

pertinence of language being interpreted I.3.3.8

judicial economy, mootness of panel findings and M.3.11

mootness of panel findings M.3.11

judicial economy and M.3.11

municipal law M.5.17

compliance with WTO/international obligations and, panel’s assessment as legal characterization / as matter for appellate review M.5.17

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “affecting”, 50 per cent fair market rule N.1.10.3

order of analysis, assumptions, panel’s right to use, obligation to avoid misleading a priori assumptions C.3.1.5

ordinary customs duties, definition, GATT II:1(b) N.1.1A.3, T.1.1A.3, T.1.2.15

Schedules of Concessions (GATT II)

ordinary customs duties in excess of those provided for in Schedule (GATT II:1(b))

GATT III:2, interrelationship H.1.9-11, N.1A.2-6, T.1.1A.2-7

“ordinary customs duties” N.1.1A.3, T.1.1A.3, T.1.2.15

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11), “such other findings as will assist the DSB” (DSU 7.1), panel’s right to make alternative findings M.3.11

Working Procedures (appellate review) (DSU 17.9), working schedule (WP 26), modification in exceptional circumstances at request of parties, participants or third participants (WP 16(2)) W.2.6.16-17

 
China — Publications and Audiovisual Products (WT/DS363/AB/R)     back to top

panel reports, rationale, need for (DSU 12.7), security and predictability of WTO obligations (DSU 3.2), aid to C.3.1.5

accession protocols

trading rights commitments

“goods” and “services”, distinguishability A.0.1.2, A.0.2.1

“without prejudice to the right to regulate trade … consistent with the WTO Agreement” A.0.2.1

burden of proof, necessity test (GATT XX(a)) G.3.3A.15

GATS, applicability (GATS I)

GATT 1994, overlap A.1.2, G.2.2.3

“measures affecting trade in services” (GATS I:1), “trade in services” (GATS I:2) G.1.2.1.10-11

General Exceptions (GATT XX)

trading rights commitments (accession protocols) ‘without prejudice to the right to regulate trade … consistent with the WTO Agreement’ and A.0.2.1

TRIMs, applicability to A.0.2.1

implementation of DSB recommendations and rulings (DSU 21), choice of means at Member’s discretion G.3.3A.17

interpretation of covered agreements

applicable law, customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)] G.1.2.1.17

changes of meaning over time G.1.2.1.16 n. 705, G.1.2.1.17

context (VCLT 31(2))

any agreement made between the parties (VCLT 31(2)(a)) or accepted by parties (VCLT 31(2)(b)), Harmonized System of Customs Classification I.3.3.9

different elements of “context” leading to different conclusions G.1.3.3.2-3, I.3.3.9

dictionaries I.3.2.13

as holistic exercise G.1.3.3.2-3

in dubio mitius principle I.3.8.2-3

parties’ intentions (VCLT 31(1)), common intention I.3.10.5, I.3.10.32

preparatory work (VCLT 32), EC customs classification practice I.3.10.6

supplementary means (VCLT 32) I.3.10.5

in case of ambiguity (VCLT 32(a)) I.3.10.30-2, W.2.3A.3

panel’s use to confirm preliminary conclusion based on VCLT 31 I.3.10.31-2

judicial economy I.3.8.3

municipal law

compliance with WTO/international obligations and

determination of compliance and interpretation of legislation distinguished M.5.19

panel’s assessment as legal characterization / as matter for appellate review M.5.19

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, restrictions on traders as A.0.2.1

necessity test (GATT XX(a)) G.3.3A.8-17

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and G.3.3A.15-17

burden of proof G.3.3A.15

“reasonably available” G.3.3A.15-16

order of analysis G.3.3A.8-10

as weighing and balancing process G.3.3A.8-14

order of analysis, necessity test (GATT XX(a)) G.3.3A.8-10

Schedules of Specific Commitments (GATS XX), interpretation

applicable law (customary rules of interpretation of public international law [as codified in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)]) G.1.2.1.17

context (VCLT 31(2))

different elements of “context” leading to different conclusions G.1.3.3.2-3, I.3.3.9

object and purpose of agreement (GATS, Preamble) G.1.2.1.13

other parts of same schedule G.1.2.1.7-8

progressive liberalization principle G.1.2.1.14

“sectors”, “audiovisual” G.1.2.1.4-17

trading rights commitments, “goods” and “services”, distinguishability A.0.1.2

 
Dominican Republic — Import and Sale of Cigarettes (WT/DS302/AB/R)     back to top

claims and arguments, distinction C.1.9

competence (AB) (DSU 17.6), issues of law / legal interpretations, issues not raised by parties S.7.2.8

legislation as such, right to challenge L.1.16

normative instrument L.1.16

municipal law, interpretation, text of legislation, sufficiency M.5.14-15

national treatment, regulatory discrimination (GATT III:4), “less favourable treatment”, detriment, need for N.1.11.10

necessity test (GATT XX(d))

availability of alternative WTO-consistent measure and G.3.6.5-6

contribution to realization of end pursued and (objective-pursued test) G.3.6.5-6

as weighing and balancing process G.3.6.5-6

request for establishment of panel, requirements (DSU 6.2), compliance, importance of, non-compliance, effect R.2.1.12

standard of review (panels) (DSU 11)

evidence, alleged disregard or distortion by panel (“objective assessment of the facts”)

discretion in assessment of evidence M.5.14

discretion in selection of relevant evidence M.5.14

discretion/independence in evaluation of evidence S.7.3.26-7

inferences that differ from party’s reasons for adducing evidence C.2.7

insufficiency of evidence, relevance M.5.13, M.5.15

“objective assessment of matter before it”

all arguments, need to consider S.7.2.9

factual and legal aspects, inclusion S.7.2.8

terms of reference of panels (DSU 7), request for establishment of panel as basis R.2.1.12

 


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